Vous pouvez publier l’article que je vous ai envoyé sur le moulin de Habergy, en citant la source ou référence: Cercle d’histoire du Pays de Messancy, chroniques n° 19 de 2007. Bien cordialement, Jean-Marie Zimmerman (Ce message est publié en français et en anglais)
(This post is published in both French and English)
Christian Moïs et Jean-Marie Zimmerman Texte publié dans la Chronique n° 19, 2007 1. Préambule Pour continuer la série consacrée aux « Demeures et familles » de la commune, nous avons choisi cette année le thème des moulins. De nombreux bâtiments subsistent encore, certains reconnaissables à leur roue ou aux meules exposées à l’extérieur. Quelques uns ont été épinglés par les auteurs du « Patrimoine monumental de la Belgique » mais tous peuvent nous faire rêver à un temps où leur activité était primordiale et le chemin qui y menait était connu de tous. Notre étude s’est arrêtée, en général, lorsque le moulin a cessé toute activité spécifique. Les familles seront représentées tant par les propriétaires, parfois exploitants sans être meuniers, que par les meuniers eux-mêmes. Nous avons donné des indications généalogiques succinctes pour situer ces familles. Comme ce travail n’est pas une recherche généalogique pure, nous en avons limité les informations pour privilégier « l’histoire » mais nous pensons aussi que beaucoup de lecteurs originaires de la commune seront heureux de trouver (ou préciser) des liens de parenté avec les meuniers. 2. Introduction. L’alimentation de base dans nos contrées est constituée par les céréales panifiables. Une étape intermédiaire indispensable est la transformation des graines en farine. Dès l’époque celte, l’usage de petites meules à main est bien répandu. On en retrouvera également dans les villas gallo-romaines . Le moulin à eau se répand à la période carolingienne puis, surtout, au Moyen Age (soit entre le VIIIème et le XIIème siècle). La mouture est alors industrialisée. AuDepuis le Moyen Age jusqu’à la Révolution française, le seigneur pouvaieut contraindre la population habitant sur le ban de son domaine à faire moudre le blé au moulin banal qui lui appartenait : il en a donc le monopole (les villageois sont dits « abannis » à un moulin). C’est un privilège qu’il se réservera toujours : dans les chartes deaccordant des libertés accordées sur le modèle de la Loi de Beaumont, il n’acceptera’ jamais d’aliénerar jamais le moulin et le four. Il en retirait évidemment des droits ou taxes qui se montaient généralement à 1/10ème des grains (la dîme) que le meunier prélevait pour lui avant mouture. Le seigneur engageait un meunier, souvent par bail de courte durée renouvelable (5 ou 6 ans), qui pouvait prélever à son profit le droit de mouture ou « Molter » (1/20ème ou 1/25ème des grains selon les seigneuries). Le meunier devait moudre les grains dans l’ordre d’arrivée des chariots, endéans les 24 heures de présentation. Si, après ce délai, les grains n’étaient toujours pas moulus, le cultivateur pouvait se rendre à un autre moulin sans payer d’amende. Le meunier bénéficiait de certains avantages (notamment prendre du poisson et des écrevisses dans le bief) et n’avait pas toujours la réputation d’être honnête : il lui arrivait évidemment de prélever plus que son dû ! On estime que sur 100 kg de grains, le cultivateur récupérait un peu plus de 60 kg de farine après déduction du son et des divers prélèvements obligatoires. Le meunier devait entretenir et réparer son moulin, parfois à ses frais même après détérioration par fait de guerre. Il devait curer le bief au moins une fois l’an. Il était tenu d’offrir un porc au seigneur chaque année, comme il apparaît dans les comptes du domaine d’Arlon pour Messancy et Wolkrange. Dans certains villages, ce sont les habitants qui sont astreints aux corvées d’entretien du moulin banal : réparation du bâtiment, curage du canal, transport des meules . La provenance de la meule était souvent spécifiée dans les baux : pierre de Champagne en général ou, à défaut, pierre de l’Eifel. Les meuniers constituent parfois de véritables dynasties ; leurs enfants épousent fréquemment des enfants d’autres meuniers. Le seigneur possédait aussi le four banal où chacun était obligé d’aller faire cuire son pain en y laissant également un prélèvement d’un vingtième. Ces droits de banalité ont persisté jusqu’à la Révolution française. Dès l’Ancien régime, certains seigneurs n’assurent plus l’entretien d’un moulin banal et n’obligent plus leurs sujets à y faire moudre leurs grains. Le moulin devient alors un bien privé appartenant soit au meunier lui-même, soit à un propriétaire qui emploie un meunier pour un terme fixe (appelé fermier dans certains actes). Cette distinction se retrouvera à partir du régime français (1795) car les moulins seigneuriaux furent mis en vente. La destinée des meuniers, selon qu’ils sont propriétaires ou employés, sera bien différente. Les premiers seront généralement riches et transmettront le moulin à leur descendance, les seconds seront souvent exploités. Les meuniers propriétaires sont généralement des professionnels bénéficiant d’un savoir-faire qui se transmet de génération en génération. Les meuniers sous bail sont fréquemment des cultivateurs qui embrassent cette profession tardivement, hypothéquant leurs biens pour une vie bien difficile, à la merci des propriétaires et de leur cupidité. Le moulin est souvent, dans les actes officiels ou les relevés administratifs, qualifié d’ « usine ». Le mécanisme de transformation du mouvement de la roue pour actionner divers outils s’est complexifié au cours du temps pour aboutir, aux 19ème et 20ème siècles, à des machines performantes, précises et productives. Le mécanisme du moulin à farine comprenait notamment la roue, l’axe, la meule gisante et la meule tournante. Tous les moulins de la région étaient actionnés par la force hydraulique et se trouvaient donc à proximité d’une rivière. L’eau était amenée à la roue par un canal (bief ; Deich, Däich ou Bies ). Le moulin disposait généralement d’une réserve d’eau constituée par un étang ou par le contenu du canal lui-même qui était alors assez long. Dans un moulin « au fil de l’eau » c’est le courant qui entraîne la roue à aube par sa partie inférieure. L’eau peut aussi être amenée au-dessus de la roue et développe en tombant sur les godets un rendement supérieur. Le moulin de Turpange fut équipé des deux sortes de roues. La force motrice développée par la roue pouvait servir à d’autres usages que la mouture des grains. Beaucoup de moulins eurent ainsi plusieurs affectations, soit spécifiques, soit variables selon les besoins ou la saison : – moulin à foulon ou foulerie (Follmillen) : on y effectuait le foulage des étoffes (battage avec de la terre glaise pour les dégraisser et resserrer les fibres). – moulin à huile (Ölmillen, Uelegsmillen), parfois dénommé « tordoir à huile » : dans nos contrées, on y produisait souvent l’huile de faînes qui servait d’huile de table ou, plus généralement, à l’éclairage au moyen de quinquets. On y pressait aussi différentes graines oléagineuses pour l’alimentation (colza, navette). L’extraction se pratiquait par écrasement des graines soit entre des coins de bois soit sous une meule dressée verticalement. – moulin à tan : broyage des écorces de chêne en vue du tannage des peaux. – platinerie : martelage du fer pour réaliser des tôles plates et des plaques. – scierie : production de planches et madriers – papeterie (Papeiermillen) : fabrication de la pâte à papier – fourniture d’électricité : à partir de la fin du 19ème siècle, certaines roues actionnent une dynamo et l’électricité produite permet d’alimenter l’éclairage privé ou municipal. 3. Généralités sur les moulins de la commune. Tous les moulins présents sur le territoire de l’actuelle commune de Messancy (après la fusion de 1977, rassemblant celles de Habergy, Hondelange, Sélange et Wolkrange) sont mus par l’eau. Si la date de création des moulins à farine nous est inconnue, on peut sans risque de se tromper la situer au cœur du Moyen Age, à l’époque de la formation des seigneuries locales, vers 1100 – 1200 probablement. Les premières chartes du comté de Luxembourg en font déjà mention : le comte Conrad qui construit le couvent de Munster donne aux moines tous les droits sur les moulins de l’Eisch en 1083 ; à l’occasion de la dédicace de l’abbatiale d’Orval en 1124, le noble Conon permet aux moines d’ériger un moulin à Blagny . En ce qui concerne la commune, les documents les plus anciens nous parlent dès le 13ème siècle pour Wolkrange, le 14ème pour Differt, Habergy, Messancy, et Longeau de moulins qui fonctionnaient depuis un certain temps déjà. Le coût d’une telle construction ne pouvait être pris en charge que par le seigneur, le moulin devenant automatiquement banal. Leur emplacement a persisté sans modification pendant environ huit siècles. Les bâtiments ont évidemment été renouvelés, transformés, parfois démolis et reconstruits assez récemment. De nombreux indices nous en révèlent cependant l’emplacement et la fonction : bief (ou canal) comme à Buvange, Habergy, Longeau ou Wolkrange, meules comme à Turpange, étangs comme à Habergy, roues comme à Buvange, Habergy ou Wolkrange. Ces établissements ont joué un rôle prépondérant dans le développement et la survie de nos villages. Mais le moulin dépendait avant tout des caractéristiques hydrographiques et nous ignorons ce qu’elles pouvaient être dans ces villages il y a huit siècles. Monsieur Berg, instituteur à Habergy, raconte par exemple que le ruisseau qui alimentait abondamment le moulin a brusquement perdu de sa force vers 1820 alors qu’à la même époque, une nouvelle source apparaissait au centre du village de Châtillon, drainant sans doute une partie de la nappe aquifère vers la vallée de la Vire . Le débit des autres cours d’eau de la commune a certainement varié depuis le 13ème siècle et a pu influencer tantôt l’installation, tantôt la mise en veille de l’un ou l’autre moulin. La force motrice procurée par la rivière et capturée par la roue a généralement permis de diversifier les fonctions des moulins, selon les époques : ils furent moulins à farine mais aussi scieries et huileries à Buvange, Differt, Habergy et Turpange. Les moulins du « Stecken » à Habergy et « Ölmillen » à Messancy furent scieries et huileries. Des activités saisonnières telles que le pressage des pommes pour en faire du cidre, le décorticage des graines de trèfle, la production d’orge perlé ou l’entraînement d’une moissonneuse – batteuse furent pratiquées notamment au moulin Eppe – Burton à Habergy . La scierie Wagner à Messancy s’équipera d’une dynamo grâce à la société « L’électrique de Messancy » présidée par le notaire Jules Tesch. Une concession est signée en 1903 pour alimenter 32 lampes de rue et 2 lampes à arc pour l’église . La scierie de Turpange fournira aussi l’électricité au village. La construction d’un nouveau moulin devait répondre à de nombreux critères et recevoir l’autorisation, aux 19ème et 20ème siècles, des administrations communale et provinciale, après avis de l’ingénieur des Ponts et Chaussées. Le bâtiment une fois achevé, un représentant de cette administration devait sceller dans le mur le « clou de jauge » qui permettait de localiser avec précision l’emplacement de la roue et des vannes afin de contrôler le régime des eaux. L’autorisation était aussi précédée d’une enquête commodo – incommodo auprès des voisins. Leurs remarques portaient principalement sur les risques d’inondation, l’usage de l’eau de la rivière pour l’irrigation des prés et cultures voisines, l’influence sur la faune piscicole. Si un moulin était déjà établi sur la même rivière, le meunier en place ne pouvait s’empêcher d’avancer des critiques souvent non fondées mais compréhensibles envers un nouveau concurrent. Le moulin comprenait la partie technique et l’habitation. Le propriétaire se réservait parfois une chambre dans cette seconde partie. L’histoire des meuniers n’est pas toujours facile à reconstituer. Les difficultés se rencontrent surtout dans les villages où plusieurs moulins ont coexisté et pour lesquels la littérature existante mêle parfois les familles. Il en va ainsi des Thill de Turpange, Messancy et Longeau ; des confusions sont également retrouvées entre les meuniers Peiffer et les scieurs Burton à Habergy. 7. Habergy a. Localisation – toponymie – Le moulin à farine est implanté à la sortie du village en direction de Rachecourt au n° 113 ; il est alimenté par le ruisseau de Habergy (Hiverdingerbach) et un étang important. Il est en contrebas de la route. La date 1718 est gravée au-dessus de l’entrée. L’ensemble comprend, outre le logis et le moulin, deux étables et une grange dont la porte contient l’inscription « MT : GR/M : D : CCC ». Ces bâtiments sont décrits au Patrimoine monumental de Belgique, T 19, arrondissement d’Arlon. Les toponymes proches sont : Müllenwies en contrebas du moulin et Müllen Striesel sur lequel il est bâti (cadastre 1821). – D’autre part, la scierie – huilerie Burton fut établie en 1771, également sur le ruisseau de Habergy, au lieu-dit « Stecken » (cadastre 1821 et atlas des cours d’eau 1845). Le bâtiment est situé actuellement rue de la Scierie. Le ruisseau qui traverse le village et actionnait le moulin à farine et la scierie est dénommé « Hieverdingerbach » mais on découvre aussi le nom de « Krinckel5 », orthographié « Crinquelle bach » dans un document de 1809, sous le régime françaisii ! Il s’agit probablement de la partie du ruisseau comprise entre sa source et le moulin à farine. b. Moulin à grains C’est un document de juillet 1331 qui relate pour la première fois l’existence d’un moulin à Habergy : Aleidis d’Aix-sur-Cloie, dame de Bereldingen, femme de Walter de Wiltz, lègue à sa cousine Béatrice, religieuse à Clairefontaine, son moulin de Hewerdingeniii. En 1351, Jean de Schoppach, écuyer, reçoit en fief le moulin et le vivier de « Herverdenges » Les siècles suivants ne nous laissent aucun document permettant d’en confirmer l’existence. L’inscription « 1718 » qui figure au-dessus du linteau laisse penser que le moulin fut reconstruit (ou agrandi) cette année-là. Les déclarations notées dans le relevé cadastral de 1766 nous donne une description sommaire : le moulin est équipé de deux tours permettant de moudre le grain et piller l’orge et d’actionner une scierie. Un étang proche est à usage du moulin. Le meunier jouit du pâturage avec la communauté. Le moulin appartient de 1766 à 1795 à la famille Bergh. Jean Pierre Bergh, meunier et propriétaire du moulin de Fouches, épouse en 1748 Marie Urban. Il officiait également comme notairevi. Leur fils Nicolas reprend les affaires. Il est aussi directeur d’une imprimerie à Luxembourg, directeur de la poste aux chevaux d’Arlon et, en 1784, acquiert le moulin à papier de Stockem. Il avait épousé Marie Claire Perl en 1782. Nicolas décède en 1793 et c’est sa veuve qui gère alors les entreprises. En 1770, un litige se déclare entre Jean Pierre Bergh et son meunier Nicolas Burton. Ce dernier, soutenu par plusieurs laboureurs du village, veut construire son propre moulin. Jean Pierre Bergh oblige les habitants de faire moudre leurs grains à son moulin et d’autre part refuse de faire fonctionner la scierie, service que tous réclament au village. Nicolas Burton voulant réaliser son projet en aval du moulin existant, Bergh en prend prétexte pour intenter un procès pour « détournement du lit du ruisseau voisin de ses prairies »vii. Bergh sera débouté et Nicolas Burton recevra de l’Impératrice Marie Thérèse, en 1771, une charte autorisant l’installation de son entreprise. (voir ci-après § d). En juin 1793, les troupes françaises de retour de la bataille de Weyler commettent des vols dans le village et pillent le moulin. Un document rédigé en 1809 nous donne plus de renseignements. Le moulin est équipé de deux roues perpendiculaires qui font mouvoir deux tournants. Les meules proviennent de Champagne. On pratique la mouture du froment, du seigle et du méteil de qualité « à la grosse », c’est-à-dire que les grains ne sont passés qu’une seule fois. La production est de deux quintaux par jour. La récolte de 1806 est considérée comme mauvaise : 100 hectolitres de froment, 1000 hectolitres de seigle et 50 d’orge. Comme il y a trop peu de céréales pour les 603 habitants de la mairie, on en achète sur les marchés d’Arlon et de Longwy. Le plan cadastral relevé en 1854 signale un « moulin et distillerie », ce qui laisse supposer qu’une activité annexe, certainement appréciée par les habitants, avait été adjointe. L’activité de cette distillerie cesse en 1877 et le local est transformé en « chambre à four ». A la fin du 19ème siècle, le moulin appartient à Nicolas Peiffer – Fichbach puis à sa veuve en 1903. Une donation – partage intervient en 1906 ; Michel Albert Peiffer – Kemp en est usufruitier. Un changement de limites et une vente interviennent en 1908. Nous trouvons ensuite comme propriétaire en 1953 Jean Pierre Peiffer, cultivateur à Habergy. c. Meuniers Simon Muller est signalé comme meunier avant 1679 et Nicolas Orban en octobre 1685. Vers 1760, la famille Bergh emploie comme meunier Nicolas Burton. Mais celui-ci prend son indépendance et construit une scierie au nord du village. Entre 1782 et 1788, c’est Jean Kauffmann, né en 1755 à Kehlen, époux de Elisabeth Balon de Hachy, qui est meunier. Il assume un bail de 7 ans puis quitte Habergy pour exploiter le moulin de Villance.
d. Autre moulin : scierie et huilerie Burton – Eppe. En 1766, Nicolas Burton est meunier à Habergy et possède la maison voisine du moulin à farine . Il est alors employé par Jean Pierre Bergh qui en est le propriétaire. Les habitants du village souhaitent bénéficier d’une scierie et d’un moulin à huile. Nicolas Burton décide de construire sa propre entreprise. Ne pouvant l’ériger à proximité du moulin à farine, il demande à l’impératrice Marie Thérèse l’autorisation d’édifier une scierie et un moulin à huile à l’entrée du village, en venant de Bébange. Il obtient cette autorisation en 1771 au lieu-dit « Stecken ». Cette scierie est reprise sur la carte de Ferraris en 1777. Par la grâce de Dieu, Impératrice douairière des Romains, Reine de Hongrie et de Bohême, …., A tous ceux qui ces présentes verront, Salut. Reçu avons l’humble supplication et Requête de Nicolas Burton par laquelle il nous a très humblement supplié de lui accorder nos Lettres Patente d’Octroi pour ériger sur le ruisseau de Habergy et sur son propre fond, Prévôté d’Arlon, une scierie, une foulerie, un tordoir à huile parmi la reconnaissance d’un florin d’or à nos Domaines. … Il devra faire construire le dit tordoir, scierie et foulerie en dedans le terme d’un an, date des présentes et qu’avant d’en pouvoir jouir elles devront être produites tant aux Dits de nos Finances qu’à ceux de notre chambre des comptes pour y être respectivement vérifiées, entérinées et enregistrées à la conservation de nos droits et hauteurs…. Car ainsi nous plaît-il, En témoin de ce que nous avons fait mettre, notre grand scel à ces présentes données en notre ville de Bruxelles le vingt septième jour du mois de mai de l’an de grâce Mil sept cent soixante et onze et de nos Règnes le trente unième. Par l’Impératrice douairière et Reine Jean Nicolas Burton est « scieur à l’eau et huilier ». Sa demeure, située alors chemin de Guelff n° 1, s’appelle « Bourtongs ». Jean Nicolas est né à Habergy le 3 mai 1796. Il marie Thérèse Thibessar née à Habergy le 5 septembre 1797. Elle décède le 20 juin 1874 et son époux le 4 février 1870. Il eurent deux fils : Jean Jacques né le 28 avril 1834 et Jacques Joseph né le 2 mars 1844. Ce dernier épouse le 11 juin 1873 Marguerite Bendels originaire de Kahler. Ils ont un fils, prénommé aussi Jacques Joseph, né à Habergy le 11 août 1865. Un conflit va surgir au milieu du 19ème siècle. Depuis l’acte de transaction signé avec le meunier le 9 mai 1832 chez le notaire Gras d’Aubange, les riverains du ruisseau de Habergy peuvent utiliser l’eau pour irriguer leurs prairies. Mais en 1852, Nicolas Graff veut construire une écluse. C’est alors le procès inévitable. Nicolas Graff obtient gain de cause en justice de paix à Messancy mais est débouté en appel en 1859. L’abbé Maurice Muller affirme, dans son histoire de Habergy, que ce litige a partagé les familles du village pendant un demi siècle et que des querelles stériles ont abouti à la lutte scolaire dans la commune en 1882 . En 1844, la scierie et l’huilerie sont munies de deux roues jumelées. L’atlas des cours d’eau les attribue (erronément ?) à monsieur Dupont . La carte Vander Maelen éditée en 1853 renseigne : scierie et moulin à huile. Jacques Joseph épouse à Habergy, le 19 avril 1893, Marguerite Eppe, née à Guelff le 2 novembre 1872. Ce couple a deux enfants : Louise Joséphine née le 4 juin 1894 et Angélique Eva née le 11 août 1897. Mais Marguerite décède à Guelff le 15 juillet 1902. Sa sœur Elise Joséphine, venue au moulin pour s’occuper des enfants, épouse son beau-frère le 23 mars 1903. Ils auront également deux filles, Maria Elisa Irène née le 3 juillet 1904 et Alice, née le 31 décembre 1908. Jacques Joseph, qui fut bourgmestre de Habergy, y décède le 13 novembre 1929, Elise Joséphine le 22 septembre 1956. Jacques Joseph Burton – Eppe procède à un agrandissement du bâtiment en 1896. En 1903, il construit une maison réunie à la scierie ; l’huilerie alors est toujours fonctionnelle . Vers 1920, l’ensemble est propriété du menuisier Jean Arthur Eppe – Burton. Il introduit en 1944 une requête pour établir un nouveau déversoir sur le canal . Un plan détaillé, joint à ce dossier, nous montre les parcelles cadastrales et le profil de l’ouvrage à réaliser 46. L’activité de la scierie cesse en juin 1955 . Au début du 20ème siècle, les fonctions du moulin étaient multiples . Les familles du village récoltaient les faînes en plaçant de grands draps sous les hêtres. Les faînes étaient rassemblées en ballots et ramenées à la maison pour être nettoyées des écorces en les secouant avec un van. Les graines apportées au moulin étaient alors placées dans des sacs en crin de cheval puis chauffées dans une cuve sous forte agitation. Les sacs étaient ensuite disposés dans une profonde encoche d’ 1,5 m taillée en V dans le tronc d’un chêne. Un coin de bois était posé au dessus des sacs. Une roue pleine chevillée en bois, reliée à la roue extérieure du moulin, enfonçait progressivement le coin qui écrasait ainsi les faînes. L’huile qui en sortait s’écoulait par une entaille munie d’un robinet, creusée dans la partie inférieure du tronc d’arbre. La force hydrauliquee mécanisme du moulin permettait aussi, grâce à un mécanisme au réglage très fin, de décortiquer les grains d’orge pour en faire de l’orge perlé, base de potages consistants. Il était aussi possible d’actionner une presse à pommes dont le jus servait à préparer du cidre. Une ingénieuse succession de roues reliées par des rubans permit aussi d’actionner une moissonneuse – batteuse disposée dans la cour du moulin. L’électricité fut produite jusque 1970 environ. La scierie elle-même fonctionnait au profit d’habitants du village et des environs ou de menuisiers professionnels. Les différents types d’arbres étaient sciés selon la saison : le hêtre en été, le chêne en dehors des périodes de gel, les résineux et le peuplier en hiver48. Conclusions Chaque village, ou presque, fut doté d’un moulin à farine seigneurial et d’un four banal, vraisemblablement dans la période comprise entre 1000 et 1200. Ce fut un élément vital pour la communauté. A partir du 18ème siècle , on connut une diminution de l’importance des céréales dans l’alimentation des populations rurales par l’expansion de la culture de la pomme de terre. Malgré cela, le moulin villageois a conservé toute son importance et son activité s’est poursuivie jusqu’au milieu du 20ème siècle, vaincu alors par l’extension des grands moulins industriels. Certains moulins eurent des spécialisations particulières, notamment comme scieries ou comme huileries. De nombreux bâtiments ont été conservés, parfois avec leur roue ou leur machinerie (Habergy, Wolkrange, Buvange, Turpange). Ceux de Habergy, Turpange et Wolkrange (Frauenbour) ont été remarquablement restaurés. Certains ont été profondément remaniés et ne permettent plus d’identifier la fonction d’origine (moulins de Differt et Messancy, scieries de Habergy, Messancy, et de scierie de Messancy). Il paraît évident de tTout devrait être mis en faire oeuvre pour conserver au mieux ce patrimoine remarquable de notre commune et, si possible, restaurer les roues et mécanismes encore en place. Pourrait-on même rêver d’en voir fonctionner à nouveau pour produire de l’électricité « verte » comme cela se passe dans d’autres régions ? Remerciements Nous tenons à remercier bien cordialement monsieur le bourgmestre Roger Kirsch et le personnel communal de Messancy, monsieur Baptista, propriétaire du moulin de Turpange, madame Anne-Marie Biren-Klein, monsieur Chaidron (administration du cadastre d’Arlon), madame Lily Didier, monsieur Albert Eppe, monsieur Camille Gillet, monsieur Firmin Maus, monsieur Jean Paul Muller, monsieur Jean Schumers. Bibliographie, sources et documentation Daxhelet M.J., Quand les belges étaient romains, Ed. D. Hatier, Bruxelles 1985. Rousseau P., L’usage des eaux courantes dans le duché de Luxembourg d’après les coutumes et les ordonnances (XVIe – XVIIIe siècle), Mémoire, Walferdange 1990 Erpelding E., Die Mühlen des Luxemburger Landes, Imp. Saint-Paul Luxembourg 1981 Verkooren A., Inventaire des archives de la Belgique. Chartes et cartulaires du Luxembourg Tome I. Archives générales du Royaume, Bruxelles 1914. Tandel E. Les communes luxembourgeoises, Habergy, Extrait de la notice de M. Berg, instituteur communal (1877) TII Arlon, AIAL 1889 Témoignage de Albert Eppe, Rossignol le 25 janvier 2007. Moïs Ch., Histoire socio-économique de Messancy, Aux Sources du Chiers n°18, Cercle Hist Pays de Messancy 2006 La traduction de nombreux toponymes est due à Nicolas Bach Matrice cadastrale de Hondelange. Archives communales de Messancy Gillet C., Famille Lebrum de Miraumont, Aux Sources du Chiers, Cercle Hist Pays de Messancy n° 17, 2005 Fonds notarial Adolphe Tesch, AEArlon Registre de population de Hondelange 1847 – 1870. Archives communales de Messancy Registre de population de Hondelange 1890 – 1900. Archives communales de Messancy Hondelange : cahier des mutations cadastrales de 1845 à 1940. Archives communales de Messancy Tandel E., Les communes luxembourgeoises, Messancy TII Arlon, AIAL 1889 Prat G., Histoire d’Arlon. Ed. Brück Arlon 1873 Zimmerman J.M., Jean Bernard Marlet (1760 – 1834). Chroniques n°15, Cercle Hist Pays de Messancy 2003 Notaire Jean Frédéric Tesch, 1835 acte n° 73, AEArlon Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et ateliers », Messancy, AEArlon Carte topographique de la Belgique au 1 :20.000è, reproduction I.G.N. Matrice cadastrale. Archives communales de Messancy Registre du conseil communal de Messancy. Wagner P., Paroisse et église Saint Hubert de Bébange in Messancy – Bébange, Eglises et paroisses, Messancy 1997 Registres de population de Differt. Archives communales de Messancy Registre de population, Differt de 1900 à 1910. Archives communales de Messancy Registre du conseil communal de Messancy, séance du 16 avril 1916. Archives communales de Messancy Registres de population, Differt. Archives communales de Messancy Fonds RF, mairie de Habergy dossier 87 farde 1, AEArlon Fonds Van Werveke, cartulaire de Munster, Arch. G. Luxembourg Muller M., Histoire de Habergy et Guelff, Aubange 1961 Cadastre de 1766. Justice de Habergy. Prévôté d’Arlon. AEArlon Even D., Schmit A. et Perl E., Fouches, édité en 2001 Bourguignon M., Inventaires du Conseil de Luxembourg. Pièces consignées au Greffe (1503 – 1794), Bruxelles 1961. Fonds RF dossier 87 (farde 1), Mairie de Habergy 1809. AEArlon Régime français 87 farde 1, mairie de Habergy. AEArlon Régime français 89 farde 36, mairie de Habergy. AEArlon Registre de population, Habergy 1867 – 1890, Archives communales de Messancy Cadastre de 1766. Justice de Habergy, prévôté d’Arlon. Fichant R., Habergy – 150 ans d’histoire d’une commune affouagère, Arlon 1981 (extraits d’après -) Muller M., Histoire de Habergy et Guelff, Aubange 1961 Atlas des communications vicinales. Administration communale de Messancy. Matrice cadastrale des propriétaires, Habergy Vol 6. Archives communales de Messancy Bourguignon M, Fonds « Usines et ateliers », Habergy, AEArlon Témoignage de Albert Eppe, Rossignol le 25 janvier 2007. Muller M., Les seigneurs de Noedelange – Seigneurs d’Athus, Lamadeleine, Guerlange. Guerlange 1959 Tandel E., Les communes luxembourgeoises, Hondelange TII Arlon, AIAL 1889 Cadastre. Livre journal des mutations de la commune de Messancy. Année 1833. Archives communales de Messancy Fonds RF Messancy 106 farde 9 AEArlon Etat des moulins à farine 1809. Commune de Messancy RF farde 106 AEArlon Cadastre 1845. Tableau indicatif primitif. Section C Longeau. Archives communales de Messancy Matrice cadastrale. Archives communales de Messancy Hennico A., Généalogie de Messancy, Canada 2003 Registre des habitants des sections de : moulin de Longeau, Longeau, ferme de Noedlange, Guerlange au 1/1/1838. Archives communales de Messancy Fonds notaire Adolphe Tesch, 1844 acte n° 67. AEArlon Registre de population, Longeau de 1856 à 1890. Archives communales de Messancy Registre de population, Longeau de 1890 à 1900 et 1900 à 1910. Archives communales de Messancy Registre de population, Longeau de 1920 à 1930. Archives communales de Messancy Registre de population, Longeau de 1948 à 1960. Archives communales de Messancy Cadastre 1821. AEArlon Prat G., Histoire d’Arlon. Ed. Brück Arlon 1873 Tandel E., Les communes luxembourgeoises, Messancy TII Arlon, AIAL 1889 Muller M., Histoire religieuse de Messancy, Aubange 1959 van Werveke N., Catalogue descriptif des manuscrits conservés à la bibliothèque de la section historique de l’Institut G.D., PSH 49, 1901 Tandel E., Les communes luxembourgeoises, Messancy TII Arlon, AIAL 1889 Documents Bourguignon, MB 291 farde 24 AEArlon Etat des moulins à farine 1809. Commune de Messancy. RF farde 106 AEArlon. Cadastre. Livre journal des mutations de la commune de Messancy. Année 1832. Archives communales de Messancy Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et ateliers », Messancy, AEArlon Cadastre 1845. Tableau indicatif primitif. Section A Messancy (parcelles 1272, 1274, 1275). Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Matrice cadastrale de Messancy à partir de 1845. Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et ateliers », AEArlon Registre aux délibérations du Conseil communal (31/5/1875 – 19/12/1884). Archives communales de Messancy Matrice cadastrale volume IV, administration communale de Messancy. Administration du cadastre. Archives. Ministère des Finances Arlon Notaire N. Nothomb, protocole de 1723, farde 4, actes 104 et 105, AEArlon Zimmerman J.M., Les « Bechter ». Aux Sources du Chiers Cercle Hist Pays Messancy, Chroniques n° 5 1992 Zimmerman J.M, Période française – Les plus gros contribuables, Aux Sources du Chiers, Cercle Hist Pays Messancy, n° 6 1993-94, Acte passé devant le notaire Jean Pierre Nothomb à Luxembourg, mentionné dans un acte du notaire Jean Frédéric Tesch de Messancy en 1810. Fonds notarial J.F. Tesch, 1810 acte 18. AEArlon Etat des moulins à farine 1809. Commune de Messancy RF farde 106 AEArlon Notaire J.F. Tesch, 1810 acte 18, AEArlon Contribution foncière des propriétés bâties 1826. Grand-duché de Luxembourg. Commune de Messancy. Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Tableau indicatif des propriétés bâties 1824. Commune de Messancy. Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Tandel E., Les communes luxembourgeoises, Messancy TII Arlon, AIAL 1889 Œuvres de loi. Messancy n° 1642. AEArlon Registre aux actes du collège, commune de Messancy, du 10/7/1876 au 8/1/1912. Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy. Messancy dossier 106 farde 14. RF AEArlon Muller M., Le château de Noedelange dans la paroisse de Guerlange, 1958 et Les seigneurs de Noedelange – seigneurs d’Athus, Lamadelaine, Guerlange, 1959. Prat G., Histoire d’Arlon. Ed. Brück Arlon 1873 Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et Ateliers », Messancy, Enquête commodo – incommodo à Turpange en avril 1841. AEArlon Le patrimoine monumental de la Belgique, vol. 19 Arrondissement d’Arlon, Ed. Mardaga Liège 1994 Van Werveke N., Catalogue descriptif des manuscrits conservés à la Bibliothèque de la Section Historique de l’Institut G. D., P.S.H. 49, Luxembourg 1901 Tandel E., Les communes luxembourgeoises, Messancy TII Arlon, AIAL 1889 Visites des moulins, période autrichienne. AELuxembourg AEA RF 114, farde 25 (vente des biens nationaux) et farde 28 (moulin de Turpange) Zimmerman J.M., Jean Bernard Marlet (1760 – 1834). Chroniques n°15, Cercle Hist Pays de Messancy 2003 Moïs C., Récompenses et décorations au 19ème siècle, Chroniques n° 11 Cercle Hist Pays de Messancy 1999 103 Cadastre 1845. Tableau indicatif primitif. Section E Turpange. Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Hols L. et Gigi R., Carnet de bord d’une épopée Mariste en Lorraine belge – Differt 1887 – 2000, Impr. Michel frères, Virton 2001. Matrice cadastrale vol VII. Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Schrobiltgen E., Notre église 1851 – 2001. Plaquette éditée par la paroisse en 2001. Témoignage de Jean Schumers, Turpange. Piquard – Maire F., Des approches généalogiques : familles Wagner, Bébange, Differt, Messancy. Carlsbourg 1991 Zimmerman J.M, Liste des électeurs pour la nomination des membres du Sénat et de la Chambre des Représentants en 1861, Aux Sources du Chiers n° 15, Cercle Hist. Pays Messancy 2003 Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et ateliers », AEArlon Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et ateliers », AEArlon Goffinet H., Cartulaire de Clairefontaine, Impr. Brück Arlon 1877 Würth-Paquay M., Table chronologique des chartes et diplômes relatifs à l’histoire de l’ancien Pays de Luxembourg, P.S.H. XVII, Ed. Brück Luxembourg 1862 van Werveke N., Catalogue descriptif des manuscrits conservés à la Bibliothèque de la Section historique de l’Institut G.-D., P.S.H. 49, Luxembourg 1901. Prat G. Histoire d’Arlon. Tome II Les institutions, Impr. Brück Arlon 1874 Régime français, Wolkrange, Archives de l’Etat à Luxembourg. Matrice cadastrale de Hondelange, vol 5, Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Registre de population Hondelange 1890 – 1900. Archives de l’administration communale de Messancy Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et ateliers », AEArlon Administration du cadastre. Archives. Ministère des Finances Arlon Bourguignon M., Fonds « Usines et ateliers », AEArlon Verhulst A., Précis d’histoire rurale de la Belgique, Ed. ULB Bruxelles 1990
MILLS IN THE TOWN OF MESSANCY
HOMES and common family of MESSANCY: Buvange mills, Differt, Habergy, Hondelange, Longeau, Messancy, Noedelange, and Turpange Wolkrange. Christian Moses and Jean-Marie Zimmerman Published in the Chronicle No. 19, 2007 1. Preamble To continue the series on “Mansions and Families” of the town, we have chosen the theme of this year mills. Many buildings still exist, some recognizable by their wheel or wheels exposed to the outside. Some were pinned by the authors of “monumental heritage of Belgium” but all we can dream at a time when their business was paramount and the path leading to it was known to all. Our study has stopped, in general, when the mill ceased any specific activity. Families will be represented both by the owners, operators may not be suckers, as the millers themselves. We gave brief genealogical information to locate these families. As this work is not a pure genealogical research, we have limited information to favor the “history” but we also believe that many readers from the community will be happy to find (or specify) the relationship to millers. 2. Introduction. The staple food in our region consists of the bread grain. A necessary intermediate step is the transformation of seeds into flour. From Celtic times, the use of small hand wheels is widespread. We also found in the Gallo-Roman villas. The water mill is spreading the Carolingian period and then, especially in the Middle Ages (between the eighth and twelfth century). The grind is so industrialized. AuDepuis the Middle Ages until the French Revolution, Lord pouvaieut forcing the population living on the bank of its area to grind wheat mill which belonged to him: he has a monopoly (the villagers were “abannis” to a mill). It is a privilege that will always reserve: in the charters of liberties granted deaccordant modeled on the Law of Beaumont, he will not accept ‘Never ever aliénerar the mill and the oven. He withdrew course of duties or taxes which amounted typically to 1/10th of the grain (the tithe) that the miller collected for him before milling. The Lord hired a miller, often short-term renewable lease (5 or 6 years), which could take for his own benefit or the right milling “Molter” (1/20th or 1/25th of the grains according to the Lord). The miller would grind the grain in the order of arrival of the wagons, within 24 hours of presentation. If after this period, the grains were still not ground, the farmer could go to another mill without paying a fine. The miller enjoyed certain benefits (including catch fish and crayfish in the reach) and did not always have the reputation of being honest, he would obviously take more than his due! It is estimated that 100 kg of grain, the farmer recovered just over 60 kg of flour after deducting his and various taxation. The miller had to maintain and repair his mill, sometimes at his own expense after damage by act of war. He had to clean out the mill race at least once a year. He was obliged to offer a pig to the Lord every year, as reflected in the accounts of the area to Arlon and Messancy Wolkrange. In some villages, these are the people who are subject to maintenance chores mill: repair of the building, cleaning of the canal, transport wheels. The origin of the wheel was often specified in the lease: pierre de Champagne in general or, failing that, the Eifel stone. Millers are sometimes real dynasties, their children often marry other children millers. The lord also had the oven where everyone had to go to bake their bread by leaving also a collection of twentieth. These rights of banality persisted until the French Revolution. From the old regime, some lords no longer provide maintenance of a mill and no longer require their subjects to grind their grain. The mill becomes a private good is belonging to the miller himself, or to an owner who employs a sucker for a fixed term (called a farmer in certain activities). This distinction is from the French regime (1795) as the manorial mills were sold. The fate of millers, whether they are owners or employees, will be different. The first will generally rich and transmit to their offspring the mill, the latter will often be exploited. Millers owners are typically professionals with an expertise that is passed from generation to generation. Millers are frequently leased growers who embrace this profession late, mortgaging their property to a difficult life, thank you to the owners and their greed. The mill is often in official or administrative records, described as “factory.” The mechanism of transformation of the movement of the wheel to operate various tools has become more complex over time to achieve, the 19th and 20th centuries, powerful machines, accurate and productive. The mechanism of the flour mill included the wheel, the axle, the wheel recumbent and millstone. All the mills in the area were operated by water power and were therefore close to a river. The water was brought to the wheel through a channel (forebay, Deich, Daichi and Bies). The mill usually has a water supply consisting of a pond or the contents of the canal itself was then long enough. In a mill “over water” is the current that causes the paddle wheel from the bottom. Water can also be brought above the wheel and develop the buckets falling on superior performance. The mill was equipped with Turpange two kinds of wheels. The driving force developed by the wheel could be used for purposes other than milling grain. Many mills and had several assignments or specific fields or variables as needed or season: – Fulling mill and fulling (Follmillen): there was on the pressing of the cloth (beating with clay for scouring and tighten the fibers). – Oil mill (Ölmillen, Uelegsmillen), sometimes referred to as “Tordoir oil” in our countries, there often produced oil beechnuts which served as salad oil or, more generally, lighting by lamps. It also urged various oilseeds for food (rape, turnip rape). The extraction was practiced by crushing the seeds or between wedges of wood or in a wheel drawn vertically. – Tan mill: grinding oak bark for tanning hides. – Metal works: hammering iron to produce flat sheets and plates. – Sawmill production of boards and planks – Stationery (Papeiermillen): manufacture of paper pulp – Electricity supply: from the late 19th century, some wheels operate a dynamo and electricity used to power the lighting private or municipal. 3. Overview of the mills of the town. All the mills in the territory of the current common Messancy (after the merger of 1977, bringing together those Habergy, Hondelange, and Selang Wolkrange) are moved by water. If the creation date of flour mills is unknown, it is safe to cheat be at the heart of the Middle Ages at the time of the formation of local lords, around 1100 – 1200 probably. The early charters of the county of Luxembourg already mentioned: Count Conrad who built the monastery of monks Munster gives all rights to the mills of the Eisch in 1083, on the occasion of the dedication of the abbey of Orval in 1124, the noble Conon allows monks to erect a mill Blagny. As for the town, the oldest documents we speak from the 13th century Wolkrange the 14th to Differt, Habergy, Messancy and Longeau mill that operated for some time now. The cost of such a construction could be supported only by the Lord, the mill will automatically become commonplace. Their location has persisted unchanged for about eight centuries. The buildings have obviously been renewed, transformed, sometimes demolished and rebuilt fairly recently. Many signs show us, however, the location and function: stream (or channel) as Buvange, Habergy, Longeau Wolkrange or, as Turpange wheels, ponds as Habergy wheels as Buvange, or Habergy Wolkrange. These institutions have played a role in the development and survival of our villages. But the mill depended above all hydrographic features and we do not know what they could be in these villages eight centuries ago. Mr. Berg, a teacher at Habergy says for example that the stream that fed the mill thoroughly suddenly lost its force in 1820 while at the same time, a new source appeared in the center of the village of Chatillon, probably draining a part of the aquifer to the valley of the Vire. The flow of other streams of the town has certainly changed since the 13th century and may have influenced either the installation, sometimes the sleep of any mill. The driving force provided by the river and captured by the wheel is usually possible to diversify the functions of the mills, according to the times: they were grist mills and sawmills, but also to Buvange, Differt, and Habergy Turpange. The mills of the “Stecken” to Habergy and “Ölmillen” Messancy were mills and oil mills. Seasonal activities such as pressing apples into cider, hulling clover seeds, the production of pearl barley or driving a combine – harvester were performed including the mill Eppe – Burton Habergy. The mill Wagner in Messancy acquire a dynamo with the company “The electrical Messancy” chaired by lawyer Julius Tesch. A concession was signed in 1903 to supply 32 street lamps and two arc lights for the church. The sawmill Turpange also provide electricity to the village. The construction of a new mill had to meet numerous criteria and receive approval, the 19th and 20th centuries, municipal and provincial government, after consulting engineer of the Highways. The building when completed, a representative of this administration was to seal in the wall “nail gauge” that allow to pinpoint the location of the wheel and valves to control the water regime. Permission was also preceded by an investigation commodo – incommodo from neighbors. Their remarks focused on the risk of flooding, the use of river water for irrigation of fields and neighboring cultures, the influence on fish. If a mill was already established on the same river, the miller in place could not help to advance criticism often unfounded but understandable to a new competitor. The mill included the technical and housing. The owner reserves some room in the second part. The history of the millers is not always easy to reconstruct. The problems occur mainly in the villages where several mills have coexisted for which the literature often mixes families. This is true of the Turpange Thill, and Messancy Longeau; confusions are also found between the millers and sawyers Peiffer Burton Habergy. 4. Buvange 1 a. Location – Toponymy No. It is located 12-14 rue du Moulin (Steicheberich). This building is included in monuments of Belgium (T 19), district of Arlon. It is U-shaped cross wing housing the local mill, the mill race, which brings water to the wheel along the rear façade. The mill was fed by the stream of Udange (or Udingerbach Udinger Wasser). It is on the card Ferraris in 1777. b. Grain mill We know that a miller, Pierre Muller, Buvange lived in 1765. This is the first historical data about the mill. Jean Pierre Hosch owns a flour mill, oil and the canal in 1840. By act of July 20, 1843, Claude Jean Baptiste is Lebrum Miraumont of acquiring the mill for $ 27,100 fr. Claude was born in Hondelange in 1813 and died in 1871 in Arlon. He married January 16, 1845 at Hondelange Anne Hansel, born in 1826 and Hondelange died in Brussels in 1905. He was councilor and then mayor of the municipality of Hondelange (which were part and Buvange Wolkrange) from 1848 to 1871. The couple had thirteen children. When the family came to live at the mill, she was accompanied by six maids and servants. Claude de Miraumont makes a total renovation. It demolishes the mill in 1846 and in 1847 the oil mill and flour mill. Only the flour mill was rebuilt and is further enhanced in 1874 by a “new system”. Jean Pierre de Miraumont (Buvange 1848 – Paris 1886), quartermaster sergeant’s son Claude, married in 1886 in Amelia Marie Reuter, bought the mill for 40,000 francs in 1878 and the whole family comes to live there. His sister Julie Madeleine wife of Emile Auguste Arlon Neunheuser August 19, 1878, and has also lce couple remain Buvange. Auguste de Neunheuser, Esquire and industry, died there a few months later, December 13, 1878. The other sisters Jean Pierre, Françoise and Anne Marie Cecile Caroline Buvange are domiciled in their respective marriages in 1888. Anne Hansel, their widowed mother, is also filled with Buvange in both marriage certificates as the owner of the mill. In November 1896, John (Nicolas) Schumers previously cultivator Guerlange, comes to Buvange as miller. But he died suddenly February 18, 1897 at the age of 41 years. The heirs of Lebrum Miraumont sell the mill, the canal and the house Schumers Nicolas, brother of John, in 1911. Nicolas, born in Messancy May 20, 1887, took over the company. It also acquired the mill in 1918 Turpange. From June 1911 to January 1920, he helped Buvange Sondack by Alphonse, a native of Vance Miller. He died accidentally in Arlon July 23, 1921. His son John, born in Guerlange January 20, 1891, succeeded him and became owner of the domain assignment in 1923 but then left Buvange to devote himself entirely to the mill of Turpange. The set is sold in August 1933. The owner is Joseph Mauer of Habergy, married to Anne Marie Schumers of Guerlange, brother of John. Joseph Mauer wants to Arlon a health food store for livestock. Their son John Henry Mauer, born in Namur April 24, 1924, is Miller – patron since 1945. It remains in operation until 1952 and it was then that Gerardus Laenen, from Ebly, operates the mill. But it burned in 1953, along with part of the house. Gerardus Laenen and his family then left for Buvange Radelange and the mill ceased all activity. c. Millers Miller is the first known Peter Muller in 1765. Charles Muller succeeded him. On November 30, 1790, he acknowledges debts to Pierre Didier Mayor Buvange, Orianne and Mary, widow of Peter Wall Buvange. As it is still not able to repay the money lent, he proposes to pledge three horses and furniture of the mill. Between 1795 and 1802, Jean Baptiste was a miller in Kleinbettingen Hosch. Messancy born September 13, 1769, son of Nicolas and Marie Scherer (Scheer?), He married Anna Jung Buvange. In a deed of 1803, it is listed as miller Buvange. He probably acquired the mill shortly before. Their son Charles was still born in Kleinbettingen March 9, 1795. When he marries Anne Marie Bosseler of Buvange (house “Groffen”) to Wolkrange February 21, 1815, it is miller. Their other son, Jean Pierre was born in Buvange September 13, 1789. He later became owner of the mill Buvange. When expertise cadastral municipalities under the Dutch, between 1819 and 1823, this mill is considered the best in town hall Hondelange and includes then also an oil mill. In 1832, Jean Baptiste Jacques sells Hosch, Battincourt miller, land at “Mühlenwies” in this village. On January 24, 1840, Jean Pierre Hosch, who is also Battincourt miller at the time, gives the mill to his sister Catherine wife of Francis HJ Buvange against that of a sum of 6018 francs. He later became miller at Baranzy where he died in 1875. Paul Kemp, husband of Angelique Berns, is used from September 1848 to May 1852. In January 1859, John born in Strassen Hintgen comes as a miller in Buvange. He is 28 and is accompanied by his brother Michael and his sister Marie, who also help. We know the other in 1864, Nicolas Jean Bartholomew at the mill house with his wife Elisabeth Rodesch but we do not know if it was miller. Henri Septfontaine the Sand was at this time. Jean Nicolas Schumers, Guerlange born May 17, 1856, comes to Buvange in November 1896. He died suddenly in February 1897. His brother Jean Pierre that supports the mill together with her sister Catherine. But he left for Turpange, leaving the management of the mill to his sister. 5. Buvange 2 (Mill Etienne) a. Location – Toponymy This mill was located on the parcel known as “Remersch Pesch” on the land register of 1821 or “Reinesch Pesch” in the documents of 1860. He was fed by the brook and the Udange Wolkringerbach. He was at the location of the house currently located No. 14 rue d’Udange. b. Mill The municipal council of Hondelange (which depends Buvange at the time) received October 29, 1860 the request of Jean Michel Etienne (or Ettienne) can build a flour mill on a greenfield site it owns at a place called “Reineschpesch” and as to divert the stream of Wolkrange for reunification of the stream Udange. Jean Michel Etienne then Buvange cultivator. The board, chaired by the mayor of Lebrum Miraumont, decides February 10, 1861: “Given the survey commodo – incommodo made on said application Whereas nothing shall prevent the construction of a flour mill in the place predicted, but expected that the observations of several Muschang, Meer, Schwind, Pierre Didier jJean … all owners are based, Believes that the requested permit should be granted 1) provided that the said Stephen complies with the guidelines and plans that the commissioner will give him agent for the work required for the derivation of Udange Creek and all maintenance at its own expense 2) it will be built a bridge over the old bed of said creek to the place where slavery now exists for draining meadows called “In Baugelt” which will also maintain at its own expense to prevent the flooding of meadows 3) the level at which the petitioner intends to conduct the water is low enough that it can interfere with property owners and senior 4) it can not be established any dam in the creek for the purpose of retaining water when they are low 5) that in any case there will be the blades of discharge quantity and of sufficient size to prevent damage due to flooding. ” The standing committee of the province agrees February 12, 1862. Construction is then performed in one year. On May 18, 1863, the engineer of the Highways of the Borough of Arlon in writing to the Chief Engineer: “The Sieur Etienne Michel residing at Buvange informs me that it has completed its plant in accordance with the order of the deputation of the Board dated February 12, 1862. ” The driver of the Highways Besseling goes on site on 25 May, place the nail gauge and write a report: “…. Recognized as the plant in question was prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Decree and that it was appropriate to place the highlight of prescribed gauge. It is therefore sealed in masonry, to the northeast corner of the building and near the reach of the plant an iron bar forty inches long, two inches wide and an inch thick so as to have the top horizontal … .. The largest amount of water retention is respectively 1) to 0.91 cm below the axis of rotation of the waterwheel 2) to 0.72 cm above the threshold of the gate of the factory 3) to 0.87 cm below the threshold of the door on the side of the road Udange. ” There is no doubt that a mill was built there. Jean Michel was born April 27, 1831 at Buvange, son of Peter (known as a cultivator in 1845 and Buvange Lischert miller in 1854) and Mary Catherine Richard. He married June 5, 1865 Anne Marie Kinn of Buvange, daughter of Jean Pierre. They have two son, Jean Pierre and Jean. But fate fell on the couple Etienne since 1867, the mill was completely destroyed by fire (only the walls remained standing) and the house is damaged although some still living. By deed February 12, 1872 before Notary Achille Sellier of Aubange, Jean Michel Etienne François Guillaume sells, carpenter, and his sister Margaret, dressmaker, “a house with barn, stables, outbuildings and toilet” and land. There is no further mention of the mill.; SSON wife sells the land he owned. Then we lose track of this family Etienne. The lifetime of this exploitation was therefore very short. 6. Differt a. Location – Toponymy The mill is listed at a place called “Schröpesch” from the land register of 1821. No other adjacent land does a place name referring to the mill. Only a few sections of wall are incorporated in a structure built in 2006-2007, between Albert Street and 1st N81. It eset powered by a long canal taking water from the stream Messancy (Die klein Korn) and once by a pond. A plan drawn in 1836 shows that the wheel spinning inside the mill. b. Grain mill We know, for a charter in December 1309 that Thileman, Lord of Messancy, is entitled to a maldre rye Thiefort the mill. Income from dependent areas of the castle in 1309 Arlon also note that this mill has a hogshead and 11 bichets wheat, 3 bushels of rye, 1 pig and 4 capons in favor of the Count of Luxembourg. By a charter of 1323, John king of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg, pledges his tithes and his share of the mills in the village of Messancy. Differt is probably included in the property since the village has been included in the ban Messancy. Then we do more than document before 1791. The mill he existed and operated during the Middle Ages and the Ancien Regime? We lack the evidence to tell. The financial areas of Arlon 1621 are well established in reference to the mill but do not report to Messancy Differt as farmland. A report of the provost of Arlon from 1766 mentions the banality of the mill Messancy but for Differt (Tiffert) speaks only of the existence of land “métillon” (or meslin mixture of wheat and rye), rye and oat mill without reporting. In 1791, Jean Evrard Barnich, paper to Stockem, dies Differt mill in one of his children. This is the first evidence since the 14th century of the existence of a mill in operation. Marlet Jean Bernard became the owner of the mill in the early 19th century. Born July 15, 1760 at Waillimont where his father was a postman forges, Jean Bernard becomes the Receiver of registration fees in Luxembourg to the advent of French rule. In shrewd businessman, he bought many nationalized property whose possessions of the abbey of Marienthal in the territories of Differt, Messancy, and Hondelange Turpange. Then he became Engineer cadastre and Justice of the Peace Messancy. He then built a home in Differt. His possessions have mills and Differt Turpange. He died March 27, 1834, leaving his fortune to his son Maximilian Joseph Bernard. The latter married Constance Doucet and their union was born one daughter: Josephine Marguerite Antoinette. He is also Justice of the Peace Messancy, alderman and provincial councilor. It effectively manages its two mills, bringing many changes. He died in Differt February 3, 1847. Lease of March 22, 1835 Jean Frédéric Pardevant Tesch, Notary … Messancy residence. Appeared: Mr Bernard Joseph Maximilian Marlet justice Township Messancy and owner residing at Differt. Which is hereby leased to rent farm for nine full consecutive years that begin in the twenty five yard having this March and will end on this day, one thousand eight hundred and forty four. To Mr. Charles Thill farmer residing at Hondelange, to present and accepting for himself, his heirs and assigns, the real property hereinafter designated as follows: Article first. A water mill to three turns making wheat flour, with its main building and barn, the building operations, the piece of land .. they stand located Differt, all in a bounded set on the west by the highway on the south by the creek, the path to Differt Turpange and Michael Wagner, on the east by the old road and Nicolas Wester, the north by the landlord who is tournail by another piece of land which said tournail and groove above are part of this lease. Are reserved to the lessor in buildings and premises designated above, the following articles, namely: 1. in the main building, the room on the first uphill to the left with a garden view. 2. The pond is enclosed in all above specified, the willows that surround and a way around this pond … … Article two. Three furrows of land containing sixty three square perches taking one side to the lessor of the other two grooves Migette and give a tip on the old road, the other on the irrigation canal. … … (And various other land) Section four. 1. A preliminary report common year two thousand pounds of hay from the Netherlands, located in a place called … differterbour. (And other fields) The lease is made under the terms, charges and conditions that follow, 1. The lessee shall not assign anyone to the right of this lease, either in whole or in part, without the express consent in writing of the lessor. 2. The lessee will be required to pay and pay every year of this lease and without any reduction in rent, land taxes and the factory building in dependency, the land and meadows will be paid by the landlord … .. 3. … .. 4. Will be required to clean out thoroughly at least once each year the mill-race mill throughout the length and width and accumulate land from this curement in the eight days that follow 5. The supply of wheels is and will be borne by the lessor, the lessee will be responsible for problems caused by his fault and pay twenty-four francs twenty or one-inch old extent of decline. 6. Lessor reserves the exclusive fishing in the waters that cross and surround the property leased. 7. The lessor reserves the right to have for twenty four hours of each week of this lease of the mill-water for irrigation of their fields …. 8. …. 9. The lessee will be held in all major and minor repairs of the mill and its outbuildings, to those of the spillway and to all in good condition at the end of the lease as he receives at its input, … .. 10. The lessee will receive at the entrance of the lease lands called Differterbour couture, hard grains planted and it will leave them and abandon such well-planted to grains at the end of this lease 11. It will sow per year than fifty six square perches of land in oilseeds 12. …. 13. …. 14. At the end of the lease, the lessee may bring fodder and straw that were not consumed but the manure remain the lessor 15. The lease is made in return for rent and yearly rent of one thousand nine hundred francs which the lessee undertakes to pay to the lessor in his home in Differt by half to twenty-five in September and March each twenty-five year lease, with species gold or silver with short and not otherwise, the first of which payments will be made écherra and the twenty on September 5 this year and will be continued for six months and six months until the end of this lease 16. With the assurance of the tenancy, the tenant mortgage especially a body of property belonging to, made to house, lands, meadows, woods and gardens, situated in the territory of Hondelange, as he has used so far itself and on which it consents to any registration at its own expense 17. A default of payment of all or part of the price of the lease at the times fixed or breach of any clause, condition or charge, this lease will be resolved automatically and it will be free to the lessor to the lessee to clear out all … leased assets. 18. …. 19. The heirs and assigns of the lessee will be required to jointly complete the execution of these in all their terms and provisions, however, if the policyholder should die during the course of this lease, his heirs will be forced to conclude that the year started … .. For the execution hereof, the lessee takes up residence for himself and his heirs and assigns in his current home Hondelange … .. The cadastre of 1845 tells a primitive flour mill on the plot 169 “Schröpesch” with a capacity of 12.3 acres. Marlet the death of Maximilian, his daughter inherited all his property. AyantElle married December 17, 1839 Dr. Jean Nicolas Lenger, Warnach born in 1811, and he will manage the property. He brings first Differt oil mill which operated at Turpange and adds two wheels Differt. An authorization file is introduced to the Province and on this occasion, the driver of the Highways Besseling signed July 22, 1856 Differt a plan with the various buildings belonging to Dr. Leng and a detailed plan of the mill. The map of P. Van der Maelen (sheet 22 / 2), published in 1853, lists next to the mill a “noodle factory.” It is a curious work which no contemporary document speaks. In 1858 the flour mill was enlarged but the oil mill that existed in the vicinity is destroyed. Another transformation occurred in 1860 to accommodate a steam mill. Dr. Lenger goods are subject to a donation – share in 1880. A fire February 13, 1892 damaged the mill to be completely rebuilt in 1910, as the dwelling house. Hesse spouses are still undergoing an enlargement in 1942. After the series of 1947, the whole falls to spouses Lecomte – Hesse remained in the French Ardennes. The building changes its destination in 1961 and became a restaurant. c. Millers Barnich is called a sucker for Differt before 1791. Barnich Evrard Jean died in effect Differt mill in 1791 with one of his children. The 19th century saw a succession of millers an impressive series. Working conditions were they particularly difficult, the rewards too low? The owners, families and Lenger Marlet, they easily came into conflict with their suckers? We do not know. Jean Pierre Goeury, known as miller in Messancy, was probably the owner of the mill Differt at least between 1787 and 1801. He probably sold his business to his son Jacques. The latter, born in Differt September 20, 1787 is primarily known as a tavern and then as a miller in 1807. On August 21, 1810, he married his first wife Margaret Dosser, widow of Nicolas Thill, miller Turpange. The couple had a son, Jean Pierre, born November 21, 1811. Margaret Dosser died February 14, 1830 and Jacques remarried May 18, 1831 to Marie Therese itch. Jean Becker is imposed on land in 1826 as a miller Differt. Following the 19th century saw a succession of millers an impressive series. Working conditions were they particularly difficult, the rewards too low? The owners, families and Lenger Marlet, they easily came into conflict with their suckers? We do not know. It is likely followed by Charles Thill husband of Elizabeth Theisen Hondelange (Hondelange died in September 12, 1828) which contains the operating lease in March 1835. The couple had at least one son, Peter, born April 3, 1827 Hondelange. Charles died at the “mill Marlet” January 10, 1837. By a report of 20 April 1847, we learn that the construction of the church of Bébange were awarded to Mr. Lucas, “manager” of the mill Differt. Soon after, it is Peter Kellen miller he left for Differt Turpange in March 1857. It is followed for one year only, by Louis Fonck, single 28 year born in Bour. We then find the Meyer family, from Septfontaine (GD Lux): Jacques, his wife and their daughter Catherine Weyler Anne Marie Septfontaine born April 4, 1866. Differt registered in September 1867, they go away already in April 1868. It was then the turn of the spouses Nicolas Wagner born in Clairefontaine and Susan Hesse native Autelbas to try their luck. They are enrolled in the district in November 1874. Suzanne died in Differt July 7, 1880, and it loses track of her husband. Arend Joseph husband of Mary Weis is Differt in 1885 and 1886. Henry was born in Sand Septfontaine (GD Lux) also was born September 8, 1856 and is listed as a miller from 1 February 1887. In December 1888, Michel was born in Sand Septfontaine (GD Lux) in 1856 as part of “miller” in Differt, from Buvange. They live at the mill in the company of their mother Eva Bork, the widow of Philippe Sand, Septfontaine miller died in June 1884. Eva leaves Differt Bork in 1891. Cecilia Sand, born in Bettembourg in 1852, also remains in the mill, she married June 8, 1894 Francis Hilbert Messancy. Jean Ries, Differt born January 3, 1847 (or 1852), husband of Marguerite Delcour (t) originating in Hobscheid (GD Lux), is described as a farmer and miller at Differt in 1891, where he conducts the demolition of Building a rural area of 2 acres. He lives in the house No. 6 which is not the mill. His estate is recorded in 1897 22. Was it when the owner Sand were workers or did he turn the mill until a professional sucker? The couple had three children: Catherine, born in 1885 in Eischen, Josephine born in 1888 and Eischen Victorine Differt born in 1893. Marguerite Delcourt is a widow in 1932, still residing in the town of Messancy. Pierre Etienne, husband of Mary Lambert, is filled in around 1894 as a miller. Gilles Joseph Plomteux, from Widogne but from Assenois briefly miller office between January 1898 and January 1899. Peter Hoffman, born in Konsdorf in 1843, husband of Rose Kleyer is entered as a miller in 1900 but left the town in January 1902. The couple and their four children were of Luxembourg nationality. Adolphe Nickels, born in 1885 in Kneutingen (Alsace – Lorraine) is part of the town as a miller in August 1907 but there is little time left. He is married to Catherine Ries. Jean Nicolas Feller, husband of Mary Braun, from Eischen, is listed in 1907 and 1908. A new miller, Nicolas Hesse, then resumes the mill. Born April 20, 1879 at Wolkrange, son of Clement and Anna Grasser, he married a native of Hesse Célestine Halanzy. It handles the first mill before coming to Wolkrange Differt. In 1910 he began the reconstruction of buildings damaged by fire in 1862. His fortune must be important because in 1916 the town of Messancy faced with heavy loads imposed by the occupying Germans turn to individuals to borrow money. Nicolas Hesse intervened to lend a sum of 5000 francs. In 1918, he sold various lands. Many workers are supporting millers Nicolas Hesse: Emile Charles Haas and Haas Aix-sur-Pierre Genin and cloister of Halanzy. Nicolas Hesse and his wife have one daughter, Mary Frances, born June 27, 1909. The couple left Differt in September 1945 and moved to Halanzy. Then Pierre Lucien Margue just take over. Aubange born April 22, 1920, it is the husband of Maria born Godelaine Flavion. Margue Pierre will be the last sucker Differt. The couple leaves in effect the mill in October 1956 to $ Aubange. 7. Habergy a. Location – Toponymy – The flour mill is located at the exit of the village towards Rachecourt at No. 113 and is fed by the stream of Habergy (Hiverdingerbach) and large pond. It is below the road. The date 1718 is carved above the entrance. Set includes, in addition to the house and the mill, two stables and a barn, the door is inscribed “MT: GR / M: D: CCC.” These buildings are described in the monumental heritage of Belgium, T 19, district of Arlon. The family names are: Müllenwies below the mill and Müllen Striesel on which it is built (cadastral 1821). – Secondly, the mill – Burton oil mill was established in 1771, also on the stream Habergy, at a place called “Stecken” (1821 cadastre and atlases stream 1845). The building is currently located in the Sawmill Street. The creek that runs through the village and operated the flour mill and the mill is called “Hieverdingerbach” but we also discover the “Krinckel5” spelled “Crinquelle bach” in a document of 1809, under the French! This is probably part of the stream between its source and the flour mill. b. Grain mill It is a document of July 1331 which tells for the first time the existence of a mill Habergy: Aleida Aix-sur-cloister, Bereldingen lady, wife of Walter de Wiltz, bequeaths to his cousin Beatrice, religious at Clairefontaine, his mill Hewerdingen. In 1351, Jean de Schoppach, Esquire, received in fee the mill and the pool of “Herverdenges.” The centuries leave us no documents to confirm their existence. The inscription “1718” appearing above the lintel suggests that the mill was rebuilt (or enlarged) that year. The statements recorded in the cadastral survey of 1766 gives us a brief description: the mill is equipped with two laps to grind grain and barley plunder and operate a sawmill. A pond near the mill is used. The miller has the pasture with the community. The mill is from 1766 to 1795 in the family Bergh. Jean Pierre Bergh, miller and mill owner of Fouche, married in 1748 Marie Urban. He also officiated as a notary. Their son Nicolas resumes business. He is also director of a printing company in Luxembourg, director of post-horses of Arlon, and in 1784, acquired the paper mill Stockem. He married Marie Claire Perl in 1782. Nicolas died in 1793 and is his widow who then manages the business. In 1770, a dispute occurs between Bergh Jean Pierre Nicolas Burton and Miller. The latter, supported by several peasants of the village wants to build its own mill. Jean Pierre Bergh forcing people to grind their grain to the mill and also refuses to run the sawmill service all claim to the village. Nicolas Burton wanted his project downstream of the existing mill, Bergh takes pretext to sue for “abuse of the creek bed nearby meadows.” Bergh will be dismissed and Nicolas Burton will receive the Empress Maria Theresa in 1771, a charter authorizing the installation of its business. (See below § d). Leen June 1793, French troops returning from the battle of Weyler commit theft in the village and looted the mill. A document written in 1809 gives us more information. The mill is equipped with two perpendicular wheels that move two turns. The wheels come from Champagne. We practice the grinding of wheat, rye and meslin quality “to big”, that is to say that the grains are moved only once. The production is two quintals per day. The harvest of 1806 is regarded as bad: 100 bushels of wheat, 1000 bushels of rye and barley 50. Since there are too few grains for the 603 inhabitants of the town hall, we buy in the markets of Arlon and Longwy. Cadastral survey plan in 1854 reported a “mill and distillery,” suggesting that an activity schedule, certainly appreciated by the inhabitants, was assistant. The activity of this distillery ever in 1877 and the room is transformed into a “furnace room”. At the end of the 19th century, the mill is owned by Nicolas Peiffer – Fichbach then to his widow in 1903. A gift – sharing occurs in 1906, Michel Albert Peiffer – Kemp is usufructuary. A change of boundaries and a sale occurred in 1908. We find then in 1953 as owner Jean Pierre Peiffer, Habergy cultivator. c. Millers Simon Muller is reported by Miller in 1679 and Nicolas Orban in October 1685. By 1760, the family uses as a miller Bergh Nicolas Burton. But it became independent and built a sawmill north of the village. Between 1782 and 1788, Jean Kauffman, born in 1755 in Kehlen, husband of Elizabeth Balon Hachy of which is miller. It takes a lease of 7 years and then left Habergy to operate the mill Villance.
d. Another mill: mill and oil mill Burton – Eppe. In 1766, Nicolas Burton Habergy miller and owns the house adjacent to the flour mill. It is then used by Pierre Jean Bergh, who is the owner. The villagers want to benefit from a mill and an oil mill. Nicolas Burton decided to build his own business. Not being able to build near the flour mill, he asked the Empress Maria Theresa permission to build a sawmill and an oil mill at the entrance of the village, coming from Bébange. He obtained this authorization in 1771 at a place called “Stecken.” This mill is included on the map of Ferraris in 1777. By the grace of God, Dowager Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, …., To all who shall see these presents, Hi. Have received the humble petition and Request of Nicolas Burton in which he humbly begged us to give him our letters patent of Grant to build on the stream and Habergy its own merits, provost of Arlon, a sawmill, a fulling, a Tordoir oil from the recognition of a gold florin in our fields. … It will have to build the said Tordoir, fulling mill and inside the term of one year before the date hereof and to be able to enjoy as they should be produced to such of our finances as those of our room accounts to be checked, respectively, endorsed and registered to the preservation of our rights … and heights. For thus our pleasure, in control of what we did to our great seal to these present data in our city of Brussels on the twenty seventh day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred seventy-one and of our reign the thirty-first. By the Empress Dowager and Queen Nicolas Jean Burton is “sawyer water and oil bottle.” His house, then located Guelff path 1, is called “Bourtongs.” Jean Nicolas was born in Habergy May 3, 1796. He married Teresa Thibessar Habergy born September 5, 1797. She died June 20, 1874 and her husband, 4 February 1870. He had two son, Jean Jacques was born April 28, 1834 Joseph and Jacques born March 2, 1844. The latter married June 11, 1873 Marguerite born Kahler Bendel. They have one son, also named Jacques Joseph, born August 11, 1865 Habergy. A conflict will arise in the mid 19th century. Since the act of settlement signed with the miller May 9, 1832 at the notary Gras Aubange, residents Creek Habergy can use water to irrigate their fields. But in 1852, Nicolas Graff wants to build a lock. Then the inevitable trial. Nicolas Graff is successful in court with Messancy but was dismissed on appeal in 1859. Father Maurice Muller says in his history of Habergy that this dispute has divided families in the village for half a century, and sterile quarrels led to the fight school in the town in 1882. In 1844 the mill and oil mill is equipped with two dual wheels. The atlas of rivers are attributed (mistakenly?) To Mr. Dupont. The map published in 1853 Vander Maelen information: mill and oil mill. Jacques Joseph Habergy wife, April 19, 1893, Marguerite Eppe, Guelff born November 2, 1872. This couple has two children: Louise Josephine was born June 4, 1894 and Eva born Angélique August 11, 1897. But Marguerite Guelff died in July 15, 1902. His sister Elise Josephine came to the mill to work with children, married her brother-March 23, 1903. They will also have two daughters, Maria Elisa Irene was born July 3, 1904, and Alice, born December 31, 1908. Jacques Joseph, who was mayor of Habergy, died there Nov. 13, 1929, Elise Josephine September 22, 1956. Jacques Joseph Burton – Eppe conducts an expansion of the building in 1896. In 1903 he built a house meeting in the mill, oil mill while still functional. Around 1920, the whole is owned by the Carpenter Jean Arthur Eppe – Burton. He introduced a motion in 1944 to establish a new spillway on the canal. A detailed plan, attached to this issue, shows the land parcels and the profile of the work to be performed 46. The activity of the sawmill ceases in June 1955. In the early 20th century, the mill had multiple functions. Village families harvested the beech nuts by placing large sheets under the beeches. The beechnuts were gathered in bundles and brought home to be cleaned of bark by shaking with a van. The seeds brought to the mill were then placed in bags made of horsehair and then heated in a vessel with vigorous stirring. The bags were then placed in a deep notch of 1.5 m V-cut in the trunk of an oak. A wedge was placed over the bags. A solid wheel wooden pegged, connected to the outer wheel of the mill, sank gradually to the corner and crushed the beechnuts. The oil coming out passed by a notch provided with a tap, dug into the bottom of the tree trunk. The strength hydrauliquee mechanism also allowed the mill, with a very fine adjustment mechanism, to dissect the barley into pearl barley, based soups consistent. It was also possible to operate a press that apple juice was used to prepare cider. An ingenious series of wheels connected by ribbons also allowed to operate a combine – Combine placed in the courtyard of the mill. Electricity was produced until about 1970. The mill itself was working for the benefit of residents of the village and surrounding area or professional carpenters. The different types of trees were sawn according to the season: in summer the beech, oak outside periods of frost, conifers and poplar hiver48. 8. Hondelange Grain mill No building can trace the story of a mill Hondelange. Only a few documents prove that the village was long past, at least since the 17th century. The mill Hondelange is committed (pledged) September 10, 1617 by Wilhelm and Jeanne Lontzen Spanheim Salome, his wife, for the benefit of Gaspar de Cithausen. In the general statement of the rights of the lords of the figure in 1638 Hondelange “Hondelange mill.” E. Tandel cites a count of properties dependent on Hondelange house in 1646. It notes that “(subjects) are also obliged to fortify the house, and also the mill to conduct maneuvers and grinding stones, for they have the expense of mouth.” The same text states that at that time the Lord had command of fifteen to seventeen subjects, servile condition. On March 27, 1672, Elizabeth Lontzen calls again the mill to pay the dowry of Sophie Préaux who entered the abbey of Hosingen. Finally, in May 1687, Paul Frederick of Nachten is a clearance (recovery of pledge) of the mill. Of the Nachten, Hondelange lords, were ruined in 1709. Their property is forfeited to miss the Monflin. We also know that the 17th century the mill was Turpange mill lords Hondelange Turpange because the ban had been pledged by the lords of those Hondelange Noedelange, previous owners. Dominic Ho (r) sch Lech and his wife Catherine are known as millers in the early 18th century, around 1712. Their daughter Catherine was born on February 6, 1715 mill. Dominic Ho (r) sch dies Hondelange January 11, 1744. It is possible that William Hosch, son of Dominique, was also a miller. He was born in 1712 and died in 1765. Another count made by Louis Albert de Monflin April 24, 1759 states that the mill reported a maldre wheat and rye maldre 1. We also have knowledge of the death of Elisabeth Mersch Hondelange, wife of Valentin Habaru miller, July 16, 1774. But there is no evidence that Valentine was a miller in Habaru Hondelange. Presumably the mill ceased operations in the mid-18th sièclevers 1770. Austrian and French records do not mention more. Where to locate the mill? We are on the cadastral map of 1821 two parcels located at the bottom of the street in the Valley before the junction with the Rue de la Chapelle called “Bei den Mühlen” and “Mühlenfeld.” The map of Ferraris published in 1777 shows a building there, without identifying it, but you can clearly see the pond supply. This pond is still shown in the atlas of roads in 1845. He was on the back of the castle. The cadastre recent (2005) mentions still a place name “Bei der Mühlen.” The mill village was so certainly there. 9. Longeau a. Location – Toponymy The mill is currently located at the end of a diverticulum of the street Beau-Sejour, he built on the plot known as “Laser Mühlen” (Mill Longeau) in the land register of 1821. Neighboring parcels were the names of “Auf Mühlen Driesch” (uncultivated land near the mill) and “In Mühlen Pesch” (pens, grazing the mill). Plowing Longeau purchased in 1833 by Peter Thill, miller in Messancy is located “Im Mühlen Peschelchen.” The mill was fed by a canal bringing water from the Messancy. It was well located on the map of Ferraris in 1777. b. Grain mill A mill existed Longeau at least the 16th century, probably before. Indeed, a new mill was built in 1602, pledged by Elisabeth Gondersdorf, Noedelange lady. It was built by Count Ansembourg, then lord of Guerlange. So a mill. The mill is shown with an important channel, on the map of Ferraris published in 1777 On the night of 16 to 17 germinal An 11 (6 to 7 April 1803), the barn containing hay and wood mill is on fire. Theodore Thill believes that it is a voluntary act but, fearing reprisals most important, it does not notify the police or to share his suspicions. He later admitted that he had received threats. Another fire damaged the mill December 16, 1808. Was it too of crime? In the “State of the mills’ returned to the prefecture by the Mayor Demathelin March 10, 1809, we learn that this mill is very similar to Messancy: it has two wheels and its production is about 4 metric quintals per day (400 kg). The drafts are mainly from Bascharage, Hautcharage, Pétange, Athus, Aubange, Guerlange, Longeau and Messancy. Peter Thill sucker pays property tax of 89.39 guilders in 1828. Jean Thomas Lambert, first day at Turpange becomes Longeau miller, probably as a caregiver. In 1845, Peter Thill is the owner of the mill and the house built on plots 616 and 617 C section. Is added to a stable housing in 1881. By act of succession of Peter Thill in 1883, its assets revert to his heirs Catherine Thill Thill, Peter Reding, cultivator Guerlange and Jane Reding of Guerlange. In 1926, the buildings are ensembletous dles demolished and completely rebuilt. A further expansion takes place in 1935. The mill remained in use until 1957. c. Millers It was not until the period before 1769 for the identity of a miller. The question then Charles Altenhoven whose wife Barbara Mains. Jean Pierre Schreiber is succeeding. It probably originated Mamer (son of William and Anne Knepper Mamer). On April 23, 1764, he married Anne Angelique Altenhoven, miller’s daughter, born in Longeau December 20, 1746. Then we find Theodore Thill occupying the mill before 1800. He married Elizabeth Muller Longeau. Born in 1736, he died in Longeau April 7, 1819. Theodore and his wife are buried in the cemetery of Guerlange. Their daughter Anne Marie Marguerite Turpange born in 1782, married in 1800, Jacques Wagner, born in 1772 in Longeau. Jacques Wagner is described as “tenant of the mill” without knowing if it helped his stepfather. Peter Thill is the son of Theodore, who became in turn miller. Turpange born in 1769, he married in Messancy, November 21, 1800, Beard Tontlinger native Guerlange. According to the register of 1824, Peter Thill land has an area of 5 acres and 91 perches (approximately 8 acres). He died in Longeau December 13, 1854 and is buried in the cemetery of Guerlange. He had as children born Longeau: Andrew, Barbara, Joan, Anne Marie, Marie and Pierre. An illegitimate daughter of Peter Thill, Catherine (b. 1831) also lives at the mill. By act of the notary Adolphe Tesch Messancy dated August 2, 1844, Jeanne Thill, eldest daughter of Peter, unemployed, residing at Mill Longeau, bought her cousin Anne Marie Thill, residing at Mill Messancy eight acres of land located “Mühlendrisch” to Longeau, between the lands of Peter Thill, and Peter Miller in Longeau Thill, miller in Messancy. This paper illustrates the control of the mills Thill of Messancy and complexity of the genealogy of this family John Jungers, Clemency, born in 1814, is certainly in Longeau miller in 1856. He died November 9, 1873. The act of succession date of 1875 (cadastre vol IV). He married Jeanne Thill: So he was son of Peter Thill, the last miller. Jeanne died in Longeau Thill March 2, 1879. At that time, Peter Nilles of Baranzy is domestic. John Theis, Longeau born in 1838, is also listed as miller. There was probably worker. He married Josephine Frank, born in Longeau in 1843 and he had a son, Paul was born January 29, 1878. Shortly after the birth, the family left Longeau. The mill is then taken up by Jean Nicolas Lambert, born in Turpange February 2, 1827, which was first miller in 1845. Jean Lambert and Anne Catherine Thomas, born in Selang October 20, 1826, married in 1857. Their son John was born in Turpange September 20, 1863. He married Josephine in Aubange Bentz in 1893. A second child, Charles, was born in Turpange June 11, 1865 and their third son Nicolas also sees the day April 2, 1868. Charles Miller will leave for Sclessin but also in 1907. Nicolas continues his father’s work until December 1912, when he left for Longeau Villers la Montagne. Then Jean Mataigne, grand-son of Jean Nicolas Lambert, born August 22, 1886 Longeau becomes briefly miller. He married in April 14, 1910 Messancy Mélanie Etienne Turpange born December 23, 1887. They have a daughter, Bertha Leah May 12, 1911. The mill is then taken up by John Lippert, singles Guerlange born February 14, 1898, son of Hubert and Suzanne Dondelinger. He will be supported for short periods by workers in 1920 and 1921: Alberty of Frassem and Servais Jacques Heusdorf of Kayl. In 1923, November 13, he married Marie Cecile Muller Messancy born September 19, 1901 at Hautcharage. The couple has three children: Josephine Marie Marcelle born May 3, 1925, André René Germain born November 14, 1927, and Peter Paul was born February 22, 1930. Several servants will be employed temporarily in the mill between 1926 and 1951: Albert Wolkrange of Majerus, Alphonse Trillet of Wibrin and Jean Baptiste and Nicolas Schneder of Wolkrange Risch of Tétange (GD Lux), John Majerus of Wolkrange, Boulanger Fernand Saint-Léger, Henri Rodesch of Martelange, Ernest Pend of Hody, René Paul Massot and Nestor. This staff is not usually a few months, one year at most. A maid, Anne Henriette of Lichtfuss Messancy, wife of Paul Bergmann, is domiciled at the mill with her two daughters from 1948 to 1953. It is then based in Turpange. Pierre Paul Lippert helped his father until 1948. John Lippert continues his work as a miller in 1957. 10. Messancy a. Location – Toponymy – Located now at No. 21 street Deboulle it once stood at the end of Millewee, dead in a cul-de-sac part of the current street Castel, called Road No. 24 on the atlas roads in 1845. By creating a new section in 1936, access to the rue d’Arlon has opened up the mill. The name “Deboulle Street” was then applied to the whole of this route, renaming Unfortunately access to this vital site for the village for many centuries. The mill was located on Parcel “Bei den Mühlen” Millewee and was bordered on the east by Parcel “Im Mühlen Driesch ‘(fallow or wastelands of the mill). It was powered directly by the water of the Messancy. Plans prepared in 1826 and 1882 show that both wheels were set in the west gable on the side of the current street Deboulle. The mill was then located on the other side of the river and accessible by a bridge. A discharge channel parallel to the river was dug upstream of the mill. – “Bei der Ölmühlen” is the geographical name for the mill – plant where there is still a shed adjacent to No. 10, rue de la Promenade. It was fed by the stream of Selang. b. Grain mill In 1309, the mill of the castle must Messancy Arlon: 6 bushels of wheat, 6.5 bushels of rye, a pork and 8 capons. In a charter dated 1323 we find another mention of mills Messancy: John, King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg gives particular pledge its share of the tithes for a loan he contracted with the provost of Arlon. In 1463, when John, Lord of Messancy, shares his property between his two daughters, he says the mill. In 1486 an act of inheritance takes the meadow located at the mill. Catherine Volkrange (Pays de Thionville), abbess of Clairefontaine, sold in 1486 to Jean de Kesselstat, Lord of Metzig, a legacy based in Messancy, with the meadow adjoining the mill (cartulary of Clairefontaine, Tandel). In 1558, armed men belonging to the French troops of the Duke of Guise make incursions in the region and broke the millstones. The miller, together with his colleague Foucher, sends a request to the Receiver of Arlon to be released from his royalties. This is dealt December 22, 1558: “The receiver states that the villages in question were totally Bruslé, similarly the church and the mill located outside the Easting villaige while dérompu and found in part that said party has Musnier faict recoustrer and repair, all supplied in a red mouldre, for the good words of recepveur, which repairs can be Cousté Karolus one hundred gold. ” Lieutenant-provost of Arlon, Bernard Everlenger, February 8, 1559 finds the recipient held the miller Messancy leaves for four gold florins, four pounds of wax, four capons, two hogsheads 13 bushels of wheat and 5 bushels 11 bushels of rye. In the accounts of Jean Riaville, Receiver General of aid stands in 1621, we learn that “the mill Messancy audit has been oultrée and remained Schaunen Survey Niedercorn for a period of six consecutive years … provided of to make a new turn white stone of Chalon. ” The miller is forced to make such repairs to the millstone of Champagne and should meanwhile pay 28 maldres third of grains in wheat. Counting the fires of 1656, after the Hundred Years War and the plague, is no longer than 14 households in the village and there are no sucker is listed. But at the count claimed by the royal chamber of Metz in 1682, the Countess of Schomberg, Messancy lady says she has the fifth part of the mill, which annually brings in about three and a hogshead of rye bichets (about 270 liters), as oats, a golden florin, a capon and a pound of wax. Arnould Tornaco Francis, Lord for ¾ Messancy but living in Dendermonde, detailing all his possessions in 1758. It takes 1 / 5 of the rights of mill Messancy but the oven, fell into disrepair for many years, does not pay. Tornaco Baroness and Viscountess de la Fontaine, co-Messancy ladies, still enjoy the 1/5th of the tithe of the mill in 1766. Under the Austrian mills are subject to regular visits from government experts. The report prepared September 21, 1771 specifies the state of the field. The miller, whose name is not reported (in fact Nicolas Hosch) leases the mill for six years. The mill is flanked by a small garden, stables and a barn. The walls are in good condition but some low-lying, flood-damaged must be repaired. The frame and slate roof are in good condition, as well as the floors except the stove and bedroom, the mill itself has been remade, following the recommendations of the previous visit . Some mechanisms are in fair condition. Both wheels and the trees are new. A wheel recumbent is broken into six pieces and can no longer be used. The discharge of water over the channel no longer exists or it is essential to avoid the “crumbling” of the reservoir. The “ordinary village must provide the wood and the benefits to achieve the impalement.” The “void” that leads to the mill is in good condition, as well as the bridge. The map of Ferraris published in 1777 represents a perfect mill and its canal, without specifically noted. On March 27, 1789, Perin, receiver of the district areas of Arlon, sells to the people of the ban 4/5èmes mill excluding 1/5th owned by the lord at the end of Austrian rule. Users are mostly mill owners and managers who, lord, became common. This day March 27, 1789 – In front of the notary Habay la Neuve appeared Jean François Perin receiving areas to the district of Arlon. We said then the authority of the Governor of the Netherlands and in the Type-approval, however, he sold, ceded abandoned and irrevocably and for ever four-fifths of the mill and provided with lands of Messancy toilet, outbuildings, utensils , right to put up with the exception of the lord who owns the fifth and all other rights. This sale is made to the same mill bannaux accepted by John Wagner, Mayeur, Jean Hennico, Sindic said Messancy and Andrew Loutsch Longeau, their constituents and that the terms and conditions: ECU Silver Award 2000 in the current province of Luxembourg … The mill was probably confiscated by the French state and sold family Goeury, a native of Aubange. A survey of 1809 Administrative us that the mill was equipped with two rotating wheels fitted with stone Champagne. Its production was 4 metric quintals per day (400 kg) grains were milled wheat, meslin, rye, barley and oats. The drafts came from Messancy, Clemency, Aix-sur-cloister, Bébange, and Longeau Guerlange. The quality of the drafts was either to Paris (economic) on the big according to the order. Grain consumption was estimated to be 4 bushels and 50 liters per year per capita. Jacques Goeury (Goury) is taxed as a miller in 1824. He then sells the house and the mill (cadastral parcel 1305) Peter Thill is already listed as owner in 1824 as well. Jean Joseph Mathelin complaint in 1832 against Peter Thill. The standing committee asked the miller, after investigation, to place two relief valves to prevent, during floods, the surrounding land are flooded. In the cadastre of 1845, the mill was taken with an area of 0.8 acres, 6.2 acre home and channel 27.8 acres. The mill was enlarged and improved by Peter Thill in 1859 on the plot called “In Mühlen Driesch.” Charles Thill comes into possession of the mill by way of gift from his father in 1867. In October 1872 he filed a complaint against the municipality for failure to cleaning. The mayor replied that it is the activity of the mill that brings silt and it is therefore the miller to proceed with the cleaning. From 1874 to 1876, a dispute between the miller to Leopold Mathelin about the canal. Monsieur de Mathelin claims that the canal bank owned but a report prepared by the administration of the Highways Arlon shows that this is the miller who wholly-owns the canal and its banks. The council, called upon to resolve the dispute, said he was incompetent and asks the parties to go to court. The mill was enlarged and improved in 1877. At the municipal council in January 1878, the demand for Charles Thill for repairs to the ford at a place called “Wäscherei” is discussed: the waters of the river back to his mill. In 1900, the property is sold, the mill and the dwelling houses are completely demolished. All passes Hyppolite Callier who married Marie Laurent, niece of the Minister Victor Tesch (cf. Chronicles 16: buildings and Tesch Castilhon). Presumably, then rebuilt the house which still stands today. His son André Lucien inherits and sells the house and the channel to Jacques Sand – Michel in 1932. A donation divided between his widow and children will occur in 1949. c. Millers The accounts of areas identified in 1621 report that the mill was leased for a lease of six years Dominic (Sondag) Schaunen of Niederkorn. On July 29, 1723, Jean Hevan (Even?), Farmer’s mill, assigns his lease to Theodore Kunzings (er) living at Thill (France). Theodore Kuntziger, probably originated in Eischen, is married to Anne Muller. This couple had at least eight children born between 1726 and 1739 Messancy. Revenue of the mill are due in part to the lord of Messancy (Jean Baptiste Henron) represented by its officer Jean Pierre Manderscheid. Towards 1764 – 1774, Nicolas Hosch is miller. He was born in 1739 in Buvange, son of Nicolas and Marie Rodange. He married Marguerite Kunsch Messancy in 1751 and Marie Scherer in 1764. Nicolas Hosch takes to lease the mill Lampach Viville (known Neumühlen or New Mill) in 1771. Unable to manage both sites, he sold the lease to his son Jean Messancy Nicolas Kerschen, miller Udange. On the other hand, his daughter Catherine born January 2, 1774 Messancy wife Steinsel in 1795, Goergen Jean Bach, a servant to the mill of Walferdange. They then remain Turpange. Nicolas is Bechter which then resumes charging. His family comes from Tyrol. Born around 1719 and died in Messancy January 29, 1787, he married Catherine Wiltgen. Prior to milling, Bechter worked as a winemaker at Stadbredimus. The couple had a son, Peter, born about 1762 and died in Messancy July 5, 1786. Mathias Bechter succeeds Nicolas. He is married to Mary Goedert whom he had two children, Catherine in 1787 and Peter in 1789. Messancy the family left in 1789 to join the mill Stadbredimus. From 1803 to 1806, Jean Pierre Goeury is mentioned as a miller in the municipal records. Aubange born in 1756, it is the third largest taxpayer in the municipality. In 1780, he married Suzanne in Aubange Welschen of Differt, whom he had at least 11 children. In fact, his wife and himself may have bought the mill regarded as a national by the French regime and then resold with garden and outbuildings on 6 Nivose 13 (27/12/1804) to Nicolas Thill. Jean Pierre Goeury was also owner of the mill between 1787 and 1801 Differt. Nicolas Thill, born in 1768 and formerly Austrian soldier, returns home in year 3 (1795). He resumed the mill probably in 1806. He died October 2, 1809. His wife Margaret Dosser, he had three children: Peter, Margaret and Elizabeth. We find Goeury Jacques, son of John Peter, as a miller in 1824 and 1826. He owns a house “Bei der Mühlen” with garden and cellar and various lands, goods on which it is imposed. The flour mill driven by water, under Dutch government, is considered first class building and as such taxed 115 florins. In another administrative record, the mill is located “Im Dorf” and the cadastral number is 1305. Jacques Goeury married May 18, 1831 Marie Therese Hebra, a native of Bourdon. It sells home and mill Peter Thill. He died August 18, 1839. Peter Thill, born in Turpange April 8, 1802, himself the son of Nicolas Turpange miller, owns the mill in 1827, some cadastral maps as the owners are already reporting in 1824 but, for his part, Jacques Goeury still paying his taxes as Miller in 1826. In 1827, he married Marguerite Limpach, born in Roedgen (GD Luxembourg) April 4, 1804. She died in Messancy April 18, 1889. The couple has at least 5 children: Jacques, Jean Pierre, Margaret Anne, Charles and Charles Leopold. Peter Thill died May 4, 1866, after the mill passed to his son Charles after deed executed before Notary Tesch April 3 above. Jean Pierre’s brother Charles, also worked at the mill but died August 31, 1868. Charles Thill was born in Messancy October 6, 1831 and died September 4, 1895. He takes over the death of his father and will be called “master miller” in the register of population from 1890 to 1900. In May 1866, he married Mary Lorang, born September 23, 1836 Frisange. They had at least four children: Marguerite, Jacques Julien, Charles Leopold (who died at the age of 7 years) and Victorine. The latter married Jules Courtois Habay-la-Neuve. Their son Jacques Julien born August 12, 1870, which in turn inherits the mill. He married in Messancy January 1, 1895, Elise Marie Kirsch who will die January 26, 1899 shortly after the birth of their son Charles (born January 17). Jacques, called a miller in 1895, seems to have left the mill soon after. He became clerk Neufchâteau where he died November 3, 1940. He sold the mill in 1900, much to the chagrin of her sister Victorine. d. Other mills: oil mill and sawmill Schumacker and Wagner On December 21, 1758, seven people Messancy delegated by the community, sign contracts before the court of the place. They yield to Nicolas Schumacker (born in Messancy December 6, 1715), for the sum of ECU 12, a municipal land with a pond on which he built a fulling mill with oil. This building, directly following the small pond fed by the stream of Selang is shown on the map of Ferraris, dated 1777. Nicolas Schumacker pays a license as oiler in the year 8 (1799). The mill was probably rebuilt between 1783 and 1788. Nicolas, son of (Messancy born October 8, 1750), described as a farmer in 1824, is listed as the owner of oil mill located “Bei der Oligsmühlen.” His daughter Margaret married Charles Wagner Differt born in 1809. They have three whose son Nicolas, born May 27, 1842 in Messancy, taking over the family business. The latter married, May 3, 1870 at Battincourt, Mary Catherine Jungers. Nicolas Wagner died May 25, 1919. Including new construction and home building was erected in 1876 rural by the spouses Wagner – Jungers. In February 1899, Nicolas Wagner, sawyer, asked the council permission to place a steam engine of 15 HP near his home. Water power is gradually replaced. In April 1906, the notary Jules Tesch, president of the cooperative “The electrical Messancy” application also seeks the council lacetti because society wants to place in an outbuilding of the sawmill Wagner Street Selang of the devices needed to provide of electricity. A new supplier will be chosen by the municipality, however, endemic in 1913. The steam causeraé having a fire,. Cc’est finally an electric motor which drives the saw. The couple Wagner – Jungers had a son, Nicolas Felix, born June 14, 1877. He took over the company and married to Catherine Kleer Hachy September 18, 1911. They had seven children. Their son Joseph, born June 2, 1919, the activity continues until the final closure in 1984. e. Notes: 1) In the year 11 (1803), the Mayor of Michel Léonard Messancy seeks permission to erect a flour mill and oil under the Dolberg at a place called “Krebling” where he has about 2 acres but the project not successful. Maybe he wanted to compete with Jean Pierre Goeury which at that time, tried to buy the mill. 2) The comment cards Ferraris published in 1777 mentions a tobacco mill in eastern Messancy, without further details. 11. Noedelange (Guerlange) a. Location – Toponymy Southwest of the farm, a field crossed by the stream of Wassergrund was called “Mühlen Pesch.” (Land Registry 1821). b. Mill A noble family moved to Noedelange the 14th century and the first mention of the castle dates from 1326. It seems natural that the lords have established a mill and an oven for their subjects. The only trace that remains is the geographical name listed above. The extensive research conducted by Father Muller M.aurice have to find some references. Manorial accounts drawn up in 1602 to incorporate Noedelange sewing and mill. Accounts of Reiffenberg in 1672 speak of a ruined old pond, a meadow and “pre near the mill” of about 2 logs above the river. It is therefore very likely that the mill itself, not included in the property was no longer active (the pond is also out of order). We know that the Lords had also Noedelange 1441 at the mill and the oven Athus and we can assume that for some families of Guerlange, it was too expensive to maintain two mills. The statement of accounts for 1635 for the benefit of Hans Diderich of Lontzen said that the miller must Athus a fee from Noedelange, which tends to confirm the hypothesis. An admission of counting dated 1759 is still a state of Pâquis said Mühlenpesch with “right of the old mill.” 12. Selang A mill is filled with “Seilenges” in the accounts of the castle of Arlon in 1309. He must pay each year: 9 hogsheads of wheat, 18 bushels of rye, two pigs, 10 pounds of wax and 4 capons. Other documents also mention a mill Selang. This is actually the Turpange mill village that was part of the City Council was therefore Sélange.Il the mill belonging to ban Selang. But the accounts of the recipient areas of Arlon in 1752 resumed as the award of “Selang mill” for the sum of 324 guilders and 16 floors, while separating the earthing of Selang and those Turpange. In a survey in 1841, residents say Turpange satisfaction to see the mill in the village provided with a second wheel, not only for themselves but for Selang Hondelange and “where there is no mill.” 13. Turpange a. Location – Toponymy Currently located rue du Vieux Moulin 42, resumed in this building monuments of Belgium was transformed into private residential property. The plot is called “Auf Letscht” from the land register of 1821. The mill was fed by a canal taking water from the Messancy. b. Mill When was the first installation of a mill Turpange? We do not know. As we have seen for Selang, it is possible that the mill assigned to this village is actually that of Turpange, which would trace its existence in the early 14th century. This certainly worked in the 16th century because it was burned by the French armies in 1558. In its decision of June 5, 1559, the Accounting Chamber accepts the request of Mark Miller to Turpange in the provost of Arlon, who asked to be relaxing for 24 years said mill and be gracious to him the rent for the year 1558 in view of what he has rebuilt at its expense, after it was destroyed, as well as the village of Wolcrange, by the French. The 16th and 17th century, the mill is owned by various lords Hondelange, of the Roben of Nachten then Monflin. During the enumeration of 1682, the Countess of Schomberg, Lady of Messancy said to have “the burning near the mill Turpange” but it is clearly not the owner of the mill itself. In 1709, the mill is committed to Jean Francois de Monflin, Lord of Hondelange. An inspection report prepared September 21, 1771 gives us a very detailed mill. The miller contract is referred to as “farmer.” Walls, floors, doors, windows, framing, stable are in good condition. Similarly, two wheels, the wheel and the different parts of the mechanism are in good condition. Water discharge is new. There is a garden to reach the left hand, surrounded by a hedge planted by the miller, and another garden and an orchard. During a previous visit, the controller was asked to dig ditches for individuals to neighboring grasslands dry, these gaps have been partially achieved under the guidance of the architect Burton. The miller must pay a tax of 63 florins 18 floors and ten pence, but a decrease of 4 guilders is granted because of improvements made. At that time the mill “banal and lands” seems in excellent condition and well maintained by a miller whose name is not reported (in fact Jean Baptiste Schneider). Upon the sale of national assets by the French regime, the mill is considered as belonging to the Austrian government and it is estimated, 23 Ventose Year V (13 March 1797) to 9150 francs. It is sold on May 27 after Hedin Louis of Luxembourg. By 1800, the mill was acquired with the house and garden 1.5 log (approximately 53 acres) by Jean Schwartz of Arlon for the sum of 7075 pounds. Then he quickly sold to Anthony Arend. This is (probably) Marlet Jean Bernard who later became owner. His son Maximilian Bernard in 1847 bequeathed to his daughter Josephine and her husband, Dr. Jean Nicolas Lenger. A turning point (a wheel) is added in 1826 following the authorization granted by provincial Order: it can be assumed that the activity was important at that time. In May 1836, the governor of the province Messancy inform the mayor of a reward will be awarded to Anne Fisch, daily 33 years old and living at Turpange. It has indeed boldly thrown into the water near the mill to save Turpange Jean Nicolas Bosseler drowning. The farmer tried to catch himself his brother fell into the river. The latter was brought down on the bank an hour later. A height: the brother of the victim is not entitled to official award because of the relationship! Maximilian Bernard Marlet, owner, requests authorization to make changes in 1841 by adding a second turning point for the wheat and the displacement of the oil mill in a nearby building to be constructed: a survey commodo – incommodo is open . In this context, the Council convenes François André 4 April a meeting of heads of households of the village (which now has 45 houses). The people seem very pleased with these initiatives. They note that there is no mill or Hondelange or Selang. Peter Thill, miller in Messancy, also attends the meeting. He claims to have enough work and the presence of a second turning Turpange the gene does not, however, he can not help to criticize because he fears a change in the flow of the Messancy it would be “great harm”. The engineer of the Highways make him out, rather dryly, that his criticism is unfounded: it is impossible to hold water since there is no Turpange pond 94. The construction is carried out in 1842. Laune sawmill was also assistant this year. In 1845, the mill itself occupies an area of 0.8 are, home, 3.1 acres, the oil mill are 1.2, 4.6 acres and the mill channel 4.1 acres. Marlet Maximilian died February 3, 1847 and his estate went before a notary in 1858. Many changes were made in the late 19th century. Dr. Lenger, became owner in 1847, operates rearrangements: the activity of the oil mill is transferred to Differt. It is possible that the milling of flour has also temporarily suspended in favor of the mill Differt. Dr. Lenger added a shed to cover the wheel in 1873 and then in 1881, adding a room in the stables in 1883, adding a main building and improvement of the mill, renewal of the mechanism of the sawmill in 1884 , further improvement of the mill. An outer wheel was powered by water from below, an inner wheel received it, the water through a pipe that led him to the top. The sawmill is partially sold in 1887. Jean Nicolas Lenger makes a donation shares in 1880. His son, Leon becomes the owner, but decided to sell in 1890. The notary Jules Tesch-Muller Messancy realizes buyer. In 1896 he added a steam engine in the sawmill, built a new hangar and installs metal grinding at the mill. The sawmill “driven by water and steam” and the mill are sold in 1917. The notary Tesch came once a week to inspect the work of the mill. It is probably he who built the house nearby called “house of custody.” The millstones were to be regularly maintained: it had corrected the surface using special hammers. A large metal clips hanging from a gallows swing, from nest in notches cut into the wheel, for raising the stones and move them to conduct the interview. The outer wheel spun the wheel of the flour mill. It will be removed and during the Messancy diverted to turn a turbine installed inside of the building, she was operating the saw. An inner wheel also allowed to work when the waters were very high: at that time, the turbine becomes unusable. This is the wheel that made the wheels move as flour. Nicolas Schumers, also Buvange miller, bought the mill in 1917. It is set in 1919 estimates for the placement of a new turbine. Around 1920, the mill produced electricity for the church, school and several houses in the village. It was the low voltage DC and Nicolas Schumers shape the project to produce an alternating current of high voltage to sell the entire common but this project will not happen. In 1920, he bought another 20 tons of coal for the “steam engine” Steam installed by the notary Tesch. To move the logs brought in by customers and carpenters in the region and place in front of the saw, Nicolas Schumers was regularly use Turpange a farmer who came to help him with a horse. Jean Pierre Schumers, formerly Buvange, just take over the business upon the death of his brother in 1921, leaving the mill to his sister Buvange. If the wheels are in place, however, there mout more flour. Jean Pierre Schumers develops a carpenter on the premises of the mill. During the 1940-45 war, the wheels turning again to prepare food for livestock: it was a coarse flour made from oats, barley and beans. The activity of the mill-mill ceased altogether in 1949. The building will then be sold for on the one hand restored, preserving an important part of the mechanism and partly converted into apartments. c. Millers The miller, in 1558, claims the tax exemption is named Mark. He asks, like other victims of the millers acts of war, that the lease be extended for 24 years. The terrible years of the plague in 1636 and the Thirty Years’ War left a deserted village: the record of 1656 no longer refers to any person. Jeannette Orban is “miller’s daughter” when she married William Wagner at the Church of Selang, October 3, 1677. The couple remained at the mill of William and Turpange Wagner is quoted as miller in certain actions. Jean Baptiste Schneider miller about 1758 to 1785. He is the son of Michael and Mary Kolp, both of Turpange. He married in February 1758 Selang 1 Christine Wagner, born in Turpange April 9, 1736. This couple had at least four children: Nicolas, Henry, Anne Marie and Catherine. Jean Baptiste died at Schneider Turpange December 25, 1785. At the end of the 18th century we find mention of two millers Turpange. Christopher Becker, born about 1754, is married to Anne Marie karigi native Foucher. Christopher died December 18, 1820. The couple had a son, Jean Pierre, born at the mill April 27, 1789. He himself became miller in 1818 and married Marie Françoise Koob, Septfontaine born January 4, 1790. They had at least four children, three emigrated to the United States between 1847 and 1860. Jean Pierre died in 1826 at Chatillon and his wife remarried in 1828 with Jean Baptiste Bosseler, Turpange born July 27, 1790. Upon the sale of the mill by the French state in 1797, he claims payment of wheels he had acqises itself. Nicolas Thill was born in Turpange December 7, 1767 and married Margaret Dosser, born in Linger (GD Lux) September 18, 1771. At his marriage in 1799, Nicolas Thill is Turpange miller. His descendants are millers in Messancy. Nicolas died October 2, 1809 and his widow remarried August 21, 1810 with Jacques Goeury, to Differt innkeeper, miller’s son Jean Pierre Goeury. Jean Pierre Becker takes the mill but he died at Chatillon May 16, 1826. The population register of Turpange, beginning in 1856, leave no sucker before 1870. However Schumers Joseph, born about 1826, husband of Elisabeth Bernard is known as miller to 1852 to 1857 and the list of voters in 1861 takes the miller Peter Thill, born in 1802 Turpange among large taxpayers voting. A 1867 document reported the miller Bockholtz Ambrose and another of Miller’s 1870 Jamain. The mill, like Differt, belonged to the family Marlet. It is possible that the activity is concentrated Differt between 1826 (death of Christopher Becker) and about 1870 or that the millers were not Turpange was domiciled at the mill. At the end of the 19th century, millers succeed. As Differt, it seems that Marlet and Lenger does not support their long suckers. Collin Henry, husband of Anne Marie Schneider, sells land in 1870 and is then filled in as a miller. Jamain Jean Baptiste, born in 1833 in France, arrived in April 1870 and left for Turpange Habay la Vella in May 1871. In this short time, Charles Thill, miller in Messancy, file a complaint against him with the governor of the province. He claims that Jamain never throws the discharge valve when the mill stops, which results in greatly reduced power to the mill Messancy. Was it an episode of the “war games” that were engaged continuously millers neighbors or the reflection of a lack of professionalism of Mr. Jamain? Jacques Kinzig, from Grandcourt, lives at the mill from February to November 1875. Matthias Arend, born November 11, 1847 Turpange then miller. On December 13, 1878, he married Maria Catherine born Weyss Turpange August 11, 1856. The couple has four children: Joseph, born in December 1879, Catherine born in October 1881, Marie Sophie was born in August 1885 and Nicolas born in Arlon in 1888, indicating the start of the family in this city. Schmitz is a miller briefly informed in December 1887. However a complaint Sucker Messancy Charles Thill against Mathias Arend who established a mill dam Turpange is treated in 1892 and 1893. We find then husband of Helen Michel Hagar Meister (born Wolkrange) from October 1895 to March 1896. Henri Lichtfus Flammang Turpange sells land in 1885 then in 1913: it is filled in as “sucker” but in fact he was a carpenter at the mill, making furniture and working also in building 106. A stable period finally seems to settle. Servais Munster, Turpange born February 14, 1856, is miller in 1878 and had a long career at the mill. He married Hondelange 1 January 1879 with a young village girl, Josephine Hilbert. Servais Munster remain in office until 1932. He died in Turpange August 28, 1935 and his wife April 4, 1942. Jean Pierre Schumers, Messancy born January 30, 1891, was the last miller and sawyer. It comes from the mill Buvange he operated with his brother. He married January 29, 1938 in Helena Halanzy Genin (Halanzy January 20, 1900). 14. Wolkrange 1 (mill) a. Localisation – toponymie It is located currently No. 25 Centennial Street. The mill and dwelling houses are listed in the inventory of the architectural heritage of Belgium, T 19, district of Arlon. It is represented on the map of Ferraris in 1777. It was fed by the stream Frauenbour, the plot called “Beim Kallicksbour” (cadastre 1821). b. Flour mill By a charter of 1286, Nicolas d’Aix gives to the abbey of Clairefontaine a retirement seven bushels of wheat on his rentcelles “I have and teng or mill Wolkeroit, deleis Erlon.” Another document reveals that in June 1289 Aleyda, abbess of the monastery of Clairefontaine, and the convent gave to the convent of their income Differdange grain mill and the town of Wolkrenges. Is it good to the mill? As the town of Buvange is already listed in another document from 1218, we can think that there is no confusion. Thus the earliest mention of a mill in the town. Like other mills in the region, he had to suffer the French armies in 1558. The Chamber of Accounts of Brussels examines June 5, 1559 a request of Peter Miller to “Wolcrange” which requests an extension of its lease for 24 years and exemption from its fees for three years. It states that shortly after signing the lease “seroient survenuz the French, the enemies of His Majesty, before the town of Thionville and consequently after the conquest of aud thereof. Arlon where ilz brusli would have, and ruin dégasté led. Arlon, Even much of villaiges thereof of Prevost, and amongst the rest of the villaiges Wolckrange, all the mill aud. Place, would have beene fully Bruslé. ” The mill Wolkrange to Her Majesty alone, 58 florins 16 sols per year in 1752. The Austrian government in 1789 decided to sell the mills and Udange Wolkrange but the French revolutionary regime annex Luxembourg. He then confiscated the mill which belonged to 7 / 8 at the Abbey of Marienthal and eighth at the Abbey of Differdange and puts it at auction on 21 Frimaire Year 6 (December 11, 1797) and is acquired by William Bastgen of Luxembourg. What happens next? Jean Nicolas Feller is probably the owner in 1845. The stables are damaged by fire and rebuilt in 1854. He sold the mill, the canal and the house in 1881, probably between his heirs. Jean Pierre Feller, always described as a “sucker” in 1901 sold the mill is “a state of significant deterioration.” c. Millers Apart from the miller Pierre manifested in 1558, we do not know of another resident of the mill before the end of the 18th century. Then Jean Bechter which is taken as a miller on the occasion of his marriage, December 4, 1777, with Madeleine Ettinger. This couple had at least five children. It is possible that Jean Bechter is the descendant of an immigrant Tyrolean. At that time, Jean Becta also signs a lease of the mill Udange: is it the same character? On the other hand, the miller called Nicolas Messancy Bechter: we do not know if there are family ties. 1810, Nicolas Even owns the mill. This is John Cherry, a native of ‘the Alzette Lesch “sucker is by lease. Claude Meer (Mayor or Mayer) was mayor annuitant Castle Sanem on behalf of Baron Tornaco. He bought the mill and takes over the lease of John Cherry on February 1, 1811. IlNé Buvange was born October 19, 1769, the son of Nicolas and Anne Marie Neckel. He was a farmer before working at the mill. He died in Wolkrange in 1824. Claude Meer was sentenced in 1823 to a fine and confiscation of grain for violating the law on the draft of 1822. In 1824, he fulfills of 12.5 guilders. Claude Meer first married Mary Krier of Buvange, died December 27, 1808 and his second wife, December 13, 1809, Barbara Francis, daughter of Theodore and Catherine Meier Habergy. Between 1830 and 1862 we find Jean Nicolas Feller as a miller, born in 1803 to Rédange. He was the son of Claude Francois Barbe and Meer, who married their daughter Anne Marie. Their son Nicolas Feller, Wolkrange born in 1847, then miller. He married SuzannJoséphine Kirschenbilder whom he had six daughters. In 1876 he donated the flour mill and the canal. François Meer, born in 1817, also owns the mill until his death, February 15, 1898. Jean Pierre Feller (born Wolkrange in 1851) and François Feller (born 1849), both single, working at the mill and live there. Nicolas Hesse, from Wolkrange, runs briefly before returning to the mill than Differt. From 1914, Nicolas Bartholomew, born February 5, 1879 Wolkrange which operates the mill. It is the grand-son of John and Elizabeth Bartholomew Nicolas Rodesch. It is possible that his grandfather was also a miller. He married December 31, 1903 Suzanne Diderich Leonie, daughter of Nicolas, born June 13, 1883 Wolkrange. We find again as miller between 1920 and 1930. This couple was born an only daughter, Leonie, who married Michael Stoffel. The couple Stoffel – Bartholomew became the owner of the mill, the house and the canal. 15. Wolkrange 2 (Francois mill – Bechet) a. Location – Toponymy Located Chiers Street No. 7, along the creek Frauenbour. b. Mill John Francis, carpenter Wolkrange, April 1843 request for authorization to establish a flour mill with two rotating Creek Frauenbour. The driver works Besseling gives a favorable report May 24, 1843. It accompanies the plan locating the mill, the stream channel and adjacent properties. A survey commodo – incommodo is also open by the municipality. There are five opposition from residents. Four of them are eager to enjoy the more water for irrigation Frauenbour. This poses no difficulty. For the miller against Feller, owner of the mill below, attempts to oppose the project. But the driver works Besseling noted that the arguments are unfounded. The owner of the source is actually Frauenbour Mr. Meer, the predecessor of Mr. Feller. The council deliberates February 28, 1848 and gives an opinion in favor of construction. Jean Francois built the mill and the house in 1851 but in 1858, still harassed by some local residents, a new application expertise, at its expense, administration of the Highways. The engineer then observed Mr. Petit François has not established the two valves mentioned in the dumps and 3 of Article 1 of the Order of the standing committee of 16 August 1843. But given the changes to the inventory, they could be replaced by a single valve placed 0.60 m wide on the left bank. Furthermore, the location of the drive wheel is not that specified in the plan attached to the order but it does not mind the change. The highlight of gauge which certifies the mill is laid November 29, 1861. Previously, John Mucha attempted once again to oppose Jean Francois by introducing an application to the Governor of the Province: I the undersigned Jean Mucha, a farmer, residing in Buvange, has respectfully expose you: 1 That by order of the standing committee of 23 August 1843, Mr. Jean Francois Wolkrange carpenter, was allowed under certain conditions that safeguard the rights of third parties who have not been met 2 That in an action pending between the exhibitor and Mr. Francis, in court of Messancy, it was agreed without prejudice that the waters would be set at the level indicated by the Administration of Civil Engineering, that exponent was previously claimed and obtained the gauge fixing of the nail, but it seems that Mr. Francis refuses absolutely to the execution of administrative orders taken against him. As a result, the exponent is begging Mr. Governor to appoint a special commissioner for the purpose of enforcing the decree ordering the demolition of the plant for which Mr. Francis has not complied with the order of authorization. In this regard, it will be useful to note that by letter from the District Commissioner, dated February 17, 1860, the Municipality of Hondelange was invited to make known to Mr. Francis having to be comply with a dispatch earlier September 16, 1859, otherwise he would order the demolition of the plant. 3, That the exponent is not known whether the municipal administration forwarded these warnings but the Sieur Francois has so far listened to any of the numerous claims that have been ordered. A mill was also Deputy tan but was suppressed in 1883. The house and mill are called “A Plöiensch Millen.” At the end of the 19th century, the property belongs to the widow and children Francois – Lippert. An act of succession passed in 1902. Lossillon Jean – Francois is then owner: he corrected the limits of the mill and expand the house in 1913. A revision of the cadastral income it is still imposed in 1920. c. Millers Jean Francois was born in Wolkrange 1 June 1808, son of Francois Habergy born about 1777 and Barbara Lippert, born about 1787 Wolkrange. Jean Francois died in Wolkrange March 19, 1864. He married Elizabeth Schmit of Garnich. The couple had two son, Jean Pierre, born in 1831 and died in 1873 and Mathias etainsi four daughters, Margaret, Barbara, Mary and Anne Marie, born in 1842, who married Jean Lossillon (Wolkrange born in 1826), the worker Mill certainly between 1890 and 1900. Their union was born one son, John, March 27, 1870. Between 1910 and 1920, still single, it is listed as “miller – farmer.” Conclusions Each village, or nearly, was with a flour mill and a seigneurial oven, presumably in the period between 1000 and 1200. It was vital to the community. From the 18th century, it experienced a decline in the importance of cereals in the diet of rural populations by expanding the cultivation of potatoes. Despite this, the mill village has retained its importance and its activity continued until the mid-20th century, when defeated by the extension of large industrial mills. Some mills were of specializations, such as sawmills or as oil mills. Many buildings have been preserved, some with their wheel or machinery (Habergy, Wolkrange, Buvange, Turpange). Those Habergy, and Turpange Wolkrange (Frauenbour) have been remarkably restored. Some have been substantially modified and no longer identify the original function (Mills and Differt Messancy, sawmills Habergy, Messancy and sawmill Messancy). It seems obvious aAny should be set to work to preserve this heritage in the best of our outstanding common and, if possible, restore the wheels and mechanisms in place. Could we even dream to see work again to produce “green” electricity as happens in other regions? Thanks We thank cordially Mr. Mayor Roger Kirsch and staff communal Messancy, Mr. Baptista, owner of the mill Turpange, Ms. Anne-Marie Biren-Klein, Mr. Chaidron (the cadastre administration of Arlon), Ms. Lily Didier, Eppe Mr. Albert, Mr. Camille Gillet, Mr. Firmin Maus, Jean Paul Muller, Jean Schumers. Bibliography, sources and documentation Daxhelet MJ, when the Belgians were Roman, Ed D. Hatier, Brussels 1985. Rousseau P. The use of running water in the Duchy of Luxembourg from the customs and ordinances (XVI – XVIII century), Memory, Walferdange 1990 E. Erpelding, Mühlen of Die Luxemburger Landes, Imp. Saint-Paul Luxembourg 1981 Verkooren A. Inventory of archives of Belgium. Charters and the Luxembourg cartularies Volume I. General State Archives, Brussels 1914. Tandel E. 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